La ganancia: forma transfigurada de la plusvalía

174

Alberto Maldonado Copello

En el tomo III de El Capital, Marx expone las formas concretas que surgen del proceso del movimiento del capital considerado como un todo, y señala que estas formas se van acercando gradualmente a la forma en que se presentan en la superficie de la sociedad, por medio de la acción mutua de los capitales en la competencia y en la forma en la cual se presentan a la conciencia habitual de los agentes de la producción.

Marx se refiere a la superficie, a las formas concretas, a lo visible, a la conciencia habitual en contraposición a lo profundo, a las formas esenciales, a lo invisible, al conocimiento que elabora la ciencia. En la investigación se parte de estas formas visibles en la superficie para entender en qué consisten, pero en la exposición Marx parte de presentar primero lo esencial. Todo el mundo compra mercancías y paga un precio por ellas, pero no sabe realmente qué es el precio ni el dinero; igualmente los capitalistas obtienen ganancias sin saber realmente qué son. La pregunta de fondo es, por tanto: ¿qué es la ganancia?

En el capítulo 1, precio de costo y ganancia, Marx señala que la ganancia es una forma transfigurada de la plusvalía, que permite a los agentes de la producción funcionar pero que oculta la verdadera naturaleza de la producción capitalista. Lo visible, lo superficial, es la ganancia mientras que lo oculto y esencial es la plusvalía, que le corresponde investigar a la ciencia.

Concepto de precio de costo

En el funcionamiento cotidiano del capitalismo, la categoría de precio de costo es fundamental y refleja la naturaleza del sistema. El valor de una mercancía está conformado por el capital constante, (invertido en medios de producción) el capital variable (invertido en compra de fuerza de trabajo) y la plusvalía: M=c+v+p. Pero para el capitalista lo relevante es su capital, que es una magnitud de dinero que desembolsa para comprar medios de producción c y fuerza de trabajo v: su capital está conformado por c+v.

Para el capitalista su costo es c+v. Lo que le importa al capitalista es recuperar el capital invertido y obtener un valor mayor (p). Concibe entonces el valor de la mercancía como precio de costo (pc) que comprende la suma de c+v, más p, dónde p es plusvalía, como lo hemos indicado: M=pc+p.

El interpretar de esta forma el valor de la mercancía tiene varias implicaciones:

  1. a) Desconoce la diferencia entre c y v en cuanto a la formación del valor; el capital constante transfiere su valor completamente, mientras que el capital variable no se transfiere, sino que crea nuevo valor.
  2. b) El capital variable, el dinero pagado a los obreros (salario), es utilizado para comprar sus medios de vida. Pero en el proceso de trabajo el capital variable se transforma en fuerza de trabajo en acción, que crea un nuevo valor que equivale a v+p. La parte correspondiente a p es un nuevo valor producido por el trabajador, valor que no se le paga, que no representa un costo para el capitalista, pero si un plus valor que él se apropia.
  3. c) La plusvalía real que obtiene el capitalista individual depende no solamente del proceso productivo, sino también de circunstancias de la circulación como el tiempo de rotación, la competencia entre los capitalistas y sus habilidades comerciales. Se llega entonces a pensar que el remanente en vez de ser algo que se realiza en la circulación, se genera en la circulación. Se trata de la idea de que el plusvalor surge de comprar barato y de vender caro.
  4. d) Se pierde por tanto la comprensión de la naturaleza y origen del plus valor. El capitalista no ve las diferencias funcionales entre el capital constante y el capital variable y concibe que el plus valor depende de todo su capital desembolsado, no solo del directamente invertido en la compra de fuerza de trabajo.
  5. e) El capitalista puede vender su mercancía por encima de su precio de costo, pero por debajo de su valor y continuar obteniendo un plusvalor; existe por tanto un margen de entre estos dos límites, que le sirve para la competencia en el mercado. Esto lo lleva a pensar también que el valor real, el valor intrínseco de la mercancía es su costo, su precio de costo.

En este capítulo aparece por primera vez en El Capital la ganancia como categoría. Dice Marx que tanto en la fórmula M=c+v+p, como en M=pc+p, la plusvalía tiene la misma magnitud, pero que cambia su interpretación y su naturaleza. Ahora p, aparece como producto del capital total y se transforma en ganancia. La fórmula se convierte en M=pc+g.

Dice Marx que la ganancia, tal como se presenta aquí, es lo mismo que la plusvalía, pero bajo una forma transfigurada, mistificada, forma que responde al régimen de producción capitalista. Y recuerda que al aparecer en uno de los polos el valor de la fuerza de trabajo bajo la forma transfigurada del salario, aparece en el otro la plusvalía, bajo la forma transfigurada de la ganancia.

174 Comentarios

  1. Desde mi humilde opinión la ecuación debería ser:
    dM(t)/dt= c[0]-M(t)+v[0]+p
    con la solución para M(0) = 0 dada por
    M(t) = c[0]+v[0]+p+exp(-t)*(-c[0]-v[0]-p)
    y entonces para t = infinito resulta la expresión de Marx:
    M(infinity) = c[0]+v[0]+p.

  2. Durante el proceso de producción, el trabajador crea valor de acuerdo con la ecuación:

    dV(t)/dt = -a*V(t)+b con la condición inicial V(0) = 0.

    La curva de creación de valor es:
    V(t) = 1/a*b-exp(-a*t)/a*b
    El valor total creado luego de un tiempo muy largo es
    V(infinito)= b/a
    Si el capital variable es v, entonces la plusvalía será :

    p = b/a-v;

    y el índice de explotación del trabajador por parte del capitalista es

    p / v = (b/a – v) / v = b/(a*v) -1 .

    La cuota de ganancia vista desde el capitalista será:

    p/(v + c) = (b/a – v) / (v + c)

    En el caso de muy bajos salarios , v = 0, la cuota de ganancia es
    b/ (a*c).

  3. En el proceso de trabajo el capital variable se transforma en fuerza de trabajo en acción, que, en sinergismo con el capital constante, crea un nuevo valor que es de la forma V = A * ( v^b) *( c ^a). Entonces la plusvalía es p = A * ( v^b) *( c ^a) – (v + c). El capitalista se apropia de toda la plusvalía p y el valor que no se le paga al trabajor es k * p donde k es un factor entre 0 y 1. Según Marx, k = 1. En mi opinión k no es exactamente 1 pero se tiene que 0.5 < k < 1.

  4. La creación de valor durante el proceso de produccuón se realiza mediante la siguiente ecuación:

    dV(t)/dt = -q*V(t)+B*v^b*c^a

    con la condición inicial V(0) = 0.

    Tal ecuación de creación de valor muestra una contradicción entre el término de productividad B*v^b*c^a , que hace crecer el valor; y el término de “fricción” q * V(t) que tiende a disminuir el valor.

    La curva de creación de valor es dada por

    V(t) = (1/q)*B*v^b*c^a-exp(-q*t)*B*v^b*c^a/q

    y es una forma de movimiento en la cual la contradicción mencionada se realiza a la par que se resuelve.

    Luego de un tiempo muy largo, el valor total creado es

    V(infinity) = (1/q)*B*v^b*c^a

    y la plusvalía total producida es

    p = (1/q)*B*v^b*c^a-c-v

    La cuota de ganancia es

    p /(c + v) = (1/q*(c+v))*B*v^b*c^a – 1

    y el índice de explotación del trabajador por parte del capitalista es

    k*p/ v = k*[(1/q)*B*v^(b-1)*c^a-c/v-1)

    donde k es un factor entre 0 y 1. Según Marx, k = 1. En mi opinión k no es exactamente 1 pero se tiene que 0.5 < k < 1.

  5. En el anterior comentario introduje un factor k. En este comentario propongo que ese factor k es una variable aleatoria continua con una distribución de probabilidad tipo beta de la forma

    (n – 1) (m – 1)
    k (1 – k)
    ———————–
    Beta(m, n)

    El valor esperado de k es n/(n+m) y por tanto el índice de explotación esperado es
    [n/(n + m)]*[(1/q)*B*v^(b-1)*c^a-c/v-1)

    En el caso de una distribución beta simética, es decir con n = m, el valor esperado de k es 0.5 ; que claramente difiere de k = 1 (valor que usa Marx) y de k = 0 (valor favorito de los apologistas del capitalismo).
    Tambien se observa que el valor esperado de k es 1 cuando m = 0 (caso Marx) y que el valor esperado de k es 0 cuando n = 0 (caso de los apologistas del capitalismo).

  6. Por qué la ganancia, que resulta ser una realización de plusvalía, no muestra sin disfraz este sentido suyo? ¿Por qué la ganancia requiere de interpretación? ¿Por qué la ganancia no dice directamente su significado? Si a esta conducta de la ganancia necesitada de explicación la llamamos el «hecho de la desfiguración capitalista», la siguiente pregunta se nos plantea así: ¿A qué se debe esa desfiguración capitalista?

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    her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is completely
    off topic but I had to tell someone!

  78. I’m not sure why but this blog is loading
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