La falla geológica: pretexto que no convence

105
Cuarto de máquinas de Hidroituango.

Los afanes por llenar el embalse, llevaron a EPM a improvisar un túnel, sin tener un plazo fatal que la obligara a hacerlo

Gonzalo Álvarez Henao*

El mayor problema que tenemos los colombianos, es que somos de muy escasa memoria. Tener retentiva, es lo que nos diferencia a los humanos de los animales. La frecuencia con que se están presentado catastróficos accidentes en Empresas Públicas de Medellín, nos lleva a proponerle a los antioqueños, que abramos un debate serio, desapasionado y transparente, en torno a la sospecha que nos despierta la seguidilla de eventos que vamos a narrar en este artículo, de los varios que vamos a publicar, producto de una seria investigación, que dejará muy mal parados al Concejo de Medellín y a los organismos de control.

No vamos a caer en la trampa que nos quieren tender algunos gremios, no preocupados por el futuro de nuestra casa matriz, sino por sus propios intereses, llamándonos a que rodeemos a las Empresas Públicas de Medellín, y no nos ocupemos de los actos irresponsables en los que han incurrido los mediocres directivos de la entidad. Al gerente general, Jorge Londoño de la Cuesta, sí hay que rodearlo, pero para que no se escape, porque más temprano que tarde tendrá que responder ante las autoridades por estar encubriendo a estafadores y a corruptos.

Las sospechas que tenemos no admiten discusión alguna, porque parten de hechos contundentes, que no los consideramos casos fortuitos, sino premeditados, para acabar con EPM como entidad pública, toda vez que como van las cosas, en poco tiempo resultará inviable, y entonces nos opondremos a su privatización.

Desviando responsabilidades

En tres años se han presentado tres eventos de magnitudes considerables en EPM, que han sacudido sus cimientos: el primero, tuvo ocurrencia el 15 de febrero de 2016, cuando se presentó un incendio en la Central Hidroeléctrica de Guatapé, que dejó la planta fuera de servicio. En ese entonces, el debate giraba en torno a si hubo falta de mantenimiento o fue una falla humana. Lo cierto es que en esa época se habló de unas pérdidas para EPM, de unos 70 millones de dólares.

El segundo hecho grave, se presentó el 23 de junio de 2017, con un incendio en la Central Hidroeléctrica de Playas, y de nuevo comenzó la polémica; pero como siempre nos pasa a los colombianos, pronto pasó al olvido, porque se impone la tesis de que hay que cuidar la imagen de EPM. La discusión, giró en torno al manejo y mantenimiento que se le estaba dando a los equipos.

El tercer evento, considerado el más catastrófico, comenzó su desarrollo el 28 de abril de 2018. Geólogos, ambientalistas y voceros de la comunidad aledaña al Proyecto Hidroitunago, expresaron sus reparos. Desde el momento mismo en que se anunció la intención de ejecutarlo, los pobladores lo consideraron de alto riesgo para su integridad física, sus cultivos, sus actividades mineras y ganaderas, y para sus vidas. Pero los arrogantes funcionarios, en su afán por adjudicar obras, no les hicieron caso, y hoy más de 700 trabajadores contratistas han sido perjudicados y más de 800 familias, por el momento, damnificadas, sin contar otros daños que tendremos en la cuenta en entregas posteriores.

Sin estudios técnicos

Muchos de los males que padecen, el país y la ciudad de Medellín en particular, obedecen al desconocimiento que hacemos, de manera permanente, de la historia y las escasas sapiencias que tenemos de la geografía y su entorno. Contrario a lo que dice el gerente general de EPM, Jorge Londoño de la Cuesta, la emergencia presentada no es un caso fortuito y mucho menos un fenómeno que apareció de la noche a la mañana, habida cuenta que para llenar el embalse sin estar terminada la obra, taponaron con moles de concreto las bocas de los túneles construidos hace cuatro años, para desviar el agua e improvisaron un nuevo túnel para desviar el río Cauca.

La información que tenemos en nuestras manos, es que no existían estudios ni diseños técnicamente elaborados, que dieran cuenta del posible desprendimiento de tierra de las laderas o en el interior del túnel, como efectivamente pasó.

Desconocen el entorno

Todo parece indicar que los flamantes directivos de EPM, no están informados de los cambios climáticos, por efectos de los gases de invernadero, y tampoco de que las precipitaciones hidráulicas en la zona son abundantes y que la cantidad de metros cúbicos ha aumentado porque las lluvias son más copiosas, como consecuencia del calentamiento global. Tal como lo han señalado expertos en la materia, EPM tenía plazo para terminar el proyecto hasta noviembre de 2019, sin incurrir en incumplimientos. ¿Cuál fue la razón entonces para que se hubiesen taponado los túneles que se utilizaban para desviar el agua, sin que estuviera terminado el proyecto?

Fue una improvisación la construcción del nuevo túnel sin tomar las medidas pertinentes, para que no se presentaran derrumbes por fuera y dentro del mismo. Hoy podemos recordar lo que tantas veces se dice: que quien desconoce la historia, la repite, y a qué costo. Los altos funcionarios de EPM, se asemejan a los tigres o a otros animales salvajes, que todos los días empiezan de nuevo porque no recuerdan nada de lo que hicieron el día anterior.

La historia de las obras de ingeniería del país está suficientemente ilustrada con las fallas que se han presentado en muchos de los grandes proyectos, fundamentalmente por la corrupción. Con el desastre de Hidroituango, estamos regresando al pasado y de qué forma, toda vez que se están removiendo las moles de concreto que utilizaron como tapones. Es decir, los túneles construidos hace cuatro años van a ser de nuevo habilitados. Pero esta falta de previsión o la mala fe, afectaron la casa de máquinas y todo el contenido de esta.

Los enemigos están por dentro

Los daños económicos y el retraso del proyecto, serán considerables. La casa de máquinas estaba a punto de ser terminada y en su interior se encontraban equipos rotores, estertores, transformadores, tableros de control y sistemas de aire acondicionado.

En otro artículo vamos a recordar cuándo empezó la decadencia de EPM y quiénes son sus responsables. Esto, en razón de que no queremos que los hechos sospechosos que estamos sacando a luz pública vayan a ser utilizados, como justificación canalla, para cierta toma de decisiones siniestras que podrían estar preparando. Las coincidencias ya dejan mucho que desear, sumadas a informaciones y documentos de primera mano, que poseemos y que ilustraremos, como el caso sospechoso de Max Seguros, creada en las Islas Bermudas.

Los enemigos de EPM no somos quienes denunciamos la corrupción que la está carcomiendo. Son, sin duda alguna, los que se hallan dentro de la entidad, atentando contra su viabilidad y estabilidad.

* Presidente Movimiento Cívico de Medellín y el Área Metropolitana.

Un grupo de damnifi cados en Puerto Valdivia

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