La desigualdad, azote mundial

105
Vista aérea que ejemplifi ca el agudo fenómeno de desigualdad social en la ciudad de Bombay, India. Foto Johnny Miller.

En los últimos diez años se duplicó el número de ricos mientras en la franja de pobreza el poder de compra se redujo el 11 por ciento

Iván Posada Pedraza

El informe anual de Oxfam Intercom1 sobre desigualdad económica es dramático cuando afirma que el mundo no es más justo que antes en distribución de los ingresos, al contrario, los ricos son más ricos y el sector popular más pobre como nunca antes.

El resumen señala además, que entre 2017 y 2018, cada dos días surgió un nuevo multimillonario, lo que significa que la riqueza se concentra cada vez más en menos propietarios. En este periodo aparecieron unos 360 nuevos multimillonarios. Otros cálculos de Oxfam hablan de que 26 propietarios que acumulan las mayores riquezas poseen más dinero que 3.800 millones de personas más pobres, algo así como la mitad de la población mundial, estimada en unos 7.600 millones en 2018.2

Desigualdad extrema

La riqueza de los multimillonarios crece cada año más rápido: en 2018 por ejemplo, alcanzó la suma de 900 mil millones de dólares, 12 por ciento más que en 2017. Entre tanto, cerca de 3.400 millones de personas sobreviven con un ingreso de 5,5 dólares al día. En la última década el poder adquisitivo de los más pobres se redujo 11 por ciento, entre tanto, en este mismo periodo se duplicó el número de multimillonarios. Al respecto, Rosa Cañante Alonso, coordinadora del Programa de Lucha contra la Desigualdad y la Captura del Estado de Oxfam para Latinoamérica y el Caribe anota: “El sistema económico actual no funciona. No estamos protegiendo las políticas públicas que sabemos que dan resultado: acceso universal a salud, educación y protección social. El 60 por ciento de la reducción de la desigualdad y la pobreza se explica por la inversión en estas áreas”.

Las opciones

Para Mario Aller, profesor de Relaciones Internacionales, la desigualdad es un fenómeno inevitable. Para el catedrático es un tema de política de los gobernantes que luchan por mantener el enfrentamiento Norte – Sur y en cada país las burguesías que tratan de mantener el poder económico y político en sus países. En su opinión los países desarrollados asumen el tema de la desigualdad como un asunto de caridad y no de solidaridad, o sea, se puede ayudar como un gesto humanitario pero nunca para que los países atrasados superen ese estadio.

Oxfam Intercom ve en los impuestos una vía para reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad, pero el tema es que los multimillonarios y las trasnacionales más poderosas económicamente no tributan en correspondencia a sus ganancias, al contrario, evaden grandes cantidades de dinero. Oxfam calcula que los ingresos no reportados de los más ricos y las multinacionales suman unos 8 billones de dólares cada año.

Intelectuales, economistas y defensores de derechos humanos se han pronunciado por un sistema de impuestos mucho más efectivo sobre la riqueza para los más pudientes (personas y empresas). El obstáculo de este tipo de medidas está en la alianza entre los gobiernos y las élites económicas y empresariales, que actúan en concordancia para no permitir ese tipo de cambios que por supuesto, van en contra de sus intereses, el enriquecimiento sin límites, y para eso necesitan controlar el poder político y económico.

Cambio de régimen

La solución no está en los impuestos (que se deben pagar de acuerdo a los ingresos de las empresas y personas) sino en el régimen socioeconómico que asegure ingresos para toda la población, y para generar esos ingresos, hay que crear trabajo digno. Aquí se evidencia la contradicción entre la solidaridad y el bienestar común de una sociedad y el lucro personal en el capitalismo.

Colombia

Según cálculos de la Cepal3 de 2017 Colombia es el segundo país más desigual de la región. El 1 por ciento de la población más rica concentra el 20 por ciento del ingreso. La desigualdad de igual forma tiene su connotación de género pues según el mismo informe las mujeres en Colombia devengan en promedio 18 por ciento menos que los varones.

Las anteriores reflexiones corroboran que la globalización en lugar de aminorar las diferencias entre países desarrollados y atrasados y por ende entre ricos y pobres, las amplian más.

Adam Smith, economista escocés, (1723 – 1790) de la escuela de los clásicos y antecesor de Marx decía que “ninguna sociedad puede prosperar y ser feliz si la mayoría de sus miembros son pobres”.

1 Oxfam, ONG, Comité de Oxford de Ayuda contra el Hambre, fundado en Gran Bretaña en 1942.

2 El Tiempo, enero 27 de 2019, pág. 1.17.

3 Cepal. Comisión Económica para América Latina.  

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