La CUT se sostiene en el 12%

104
Aspecto de una de las reuniones entre centrales obreras, el Ministerio de Trabajo y empresarios, para la discusión del salario mínimo. Foto Mintrabajo.

Las conversaciones entre Gobierno, empresarios, por un lado, y trabajadores por otro, no han tenido significativos avances. El salario mínimo podría volver a ser decretado

Juan Carlos Hurtado Fonseca
@Aurelianolatino

Dirigentes de la Central Unitaria de Trabajadores, CUT, que participan de las conversaciones en la Comisión Permanente de Concertación de Políticas Salariales y Laborales, aseguraron que asisten a un rito anual, y que en la primera reunión para acordar el reajuste en el salario mínimo para 2018, realizada el pasado 5 de diciembre, los ministerios de Hacienda y Trabajo presentaron cifras sobre el estado de la economía y el empleo.

“Todo parece muy bonito, todo parece una novela de rosas. Pero la situación de los trabajadores y la del país va de mal en peor, y eso es lo que ellos no quieren reconocer. Llevamos cuatro años en los que todos los pronósticos del Ministerio de Hacienda, del Banco de la República y de Planeación Nacional no se cumplen, y se mantiene un decrecimiento en la economía que está reflejado en el desempleo y en la disminución del consumo de los hogares.

“El golpe de la reforma tributaria de 2016 nunca han querido tenerlo en consideración y hemos perdido empleo y dinamismo en la economía. Insistimos en que la única manera de reactivarla es haciendo un significativo aumento de los salarios”, explicó a los medios de comunicación el dirigente de la CUT y negociador Fabio Arias, al término de la primera sesión con Gobierno y empresarios.

El porqué del 12%

La cifra presentada por esta central para reajuste de salario mínimo es de 12%, con base en una necesaria indexación de seis puntos que debe haber por la pérdida de poder adquisitivo de los salarios y por un posible 4,5% de inflación, más un punto de productividad; como lo había explicado el presidente de la CUT, Luis Alejandro Pedraza, a este medio de comunicación.

Por su parte, en la reunión los gremios de la producción plantearon sus propuestas así: ANDI y Fenalco, 4,7%; SAC, 4,6%; y Asobancaria y Acopi, 4,5%, lo que evidencia las distancias, y aunque faltan varios días para negociar es difícil un acuerdo y que el salario para 2018 sea decretado. Además, pidieron a los sindicatos presentar ofertas de incremento salarial alcanzables y que atiendan el equilibrio económico y fiscal del país.

A su vez, la ministra de Trabajo, Griselda Janeth Restrepo Gallego, dijo: “Se entregó la cifra de la productividad total que fue de -0.24%, y de la productividad laboral 0.44%, mientras que el dato de la inflación fue de 4,12%, cifras muy importantes y positivas para esta mesa de Concertación y que nos permiten empezar de fondo las discusiones de salario mínimo”.

Sin embargo, Fabio Arias indicó que la misma Federación Nacional de Comerciantes, Fenalco, ha reconocido una disminución en el consumo. Para el dirigente sindical, esta situación se origina “porque los trabajadores no tenemos plata en el bolsillo”.

Para el Centro de Estudios del Trabajo, Cedetrabajo, la cifra solicitada por la central sindical se justifica porque en los últimos once años, por culpa de la mala medición que ha hecho Planeación Nacional de la productividad de los trabajadores, estos han perdido 13,5 puntos porcentuales de productividad, que no se les ha reconocido, que no se les ha pagado: “Eso significa alrededor de un millón 77 mil pesos para cada trabajador y 18 millones de millones de pesos para el conjunto de los trabajadores del país”, explicó Mario Valencia, su director.

Según esta organización: “El Departamento Nacional de Planeación subestima las cifras de productividad para justificar una situación precaria a los trabajadores. Usando el modelo de Cobb Douglas, mide la productividad tomando la participación combinada del capital y del empleo en el producto (Productividad Total de los Factores, PTF), pero sin mediar la Productividad Media Laboral, (PML) que es la generada exclusivamente por los trabajadores”.

Más disensos

Al término de la segunda sesión de la Comisión, realizada al siguiente día, el negociador por la CUT, Fabio Arias hizo tres conclusiones: cuestionó la temporada en que se negocia porque faltan los datos reales de la inflación. “Ya ha pasado en los dos últimos años en los que hay diferencias con los empresarios quienes hacen proyecciones más bajas de lo real que cambian al finalizar diciembre”. Por esto, evidenció la necesidad de trasladar a discusión para febrero.

El segundo aspecto, es el costo de la canasta básica que no se conoce en la mesa, dato que no ha sido entregado por el DANE, quien dice no tenerlo: “Es inconcebible que no tengan ese dato, algo estará escondiendo ese dato… según nuestra proyección son 2,3 salarios mínimos lo que vale la canasta básica en Colombia”, anotó el dirigente sindical.

Pero el tema más importante cuestionado por la CUT, son las grandes diferencias entre las partes sentadas a la mesa, en el tema de la productividad. El Gobierno y los empresarios hablan de una productividad total de los factores y los trabajadores sostienen que la que se debe tener en cuenta es la productividad laboral, porque lo que se discute son salarios.

Cedetrabajo presentó una serie de argumentos que justifican la petición de la CUT. Uno de ellos es que el salario mínimo colombiano es muy similar al salario medio: Contando con que tan solo el 49% de los ocupados son asalariados, la diferencia que existe entre salario mínimo y medio es muy pequeña. Así, un salario mínimo (USD 246) representa el 59% del salario medio (USD 420). Entre más alta esta cifra es peor, porque significa que el salario mínimo se parece mucho al salario medio de la población, es decir, que la mayoría de la población no gana más del mínimo. En Chile la brecha es de 36% y en México de 22. En Francia es de 45% pero ambos salarios son muy altos allí.

El segundo es que la remuneración es muy baja: el 69% de los trabajadores en Colombia ganan entre 0 y 1,5 salario mínimos mensuales (entre $ 0 y $1.106.572). La capacidad de pago es muy baja y por eso no hay dinámica económica por el lado de la demanda. Por el lado de la oferta la política es la de los TLC y la extracción petrolera, así que tampoco hay aparato productivo.

Y otro a destacar, es la trampa de los inactivos: En Colombia hay 13.470.000 inactivos. Dentro de esta categoría existen 3.023.000 personas consideradas como “desempleados de alta temporalidad”, que no aparecen en las estadísticas de desempleo porque llevan más de 1 año sin encontrar trabajo. Si se sinceraran estas cifras, el desempleo sería del 20%.

Así las cosas, la posibilidad de un acuerdo está muy lejana ya que Gobierno y empresarios no permiten la discusión de temas como los anteriores, relacionados directamente con los salarios, y en cifras, las propuestas de las partes para reajuste salarial se mantienen distantes. Pero tampoco se ve una gran movilización de organizaciones sociales y ciudadanos en general acompañando las negociaciones y presionando, lo que augura que nuevamente el Presidente de la República, Juan Manuel Santos, impondrá por decreto un miserable reajuste salarial.

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