Julio Flórez, en Mariamulata

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Casa en Usiacurí donde fue coronado y murió Julio Flórez en 1923.

José Ramón Llanos

Todos sabemos cuán difícil es publicar y lograr que dure circulando en Colombia una revista cultural. Por tanto, es satisfactorio identificar una revista del Caribe colombiano que en la edición de mayo-junio llegó a número 17, nos referimos a la publicación Maríamulata, editada en la ciudad de Barranquilla. La revista es el órgano de expresión de la Fundación Maríamulata, dirigida por Alfonso Ávila Pérez, el director de la revista es el poeta y docente universitario Federico Santodomingo. Este número contiene textos alusivos al último de los románticos del país, el poeta Julio Flórez. Parte del contenido de la revista recoge poemas y ensayos presentados en Flórez Junto al Mar, en su décima versión internacional que se realizó del 19 al 23 de mayo en Puerto Colombia, Atlántico.

Los intelectuales que tuvieron la iniciativa del evento Flórez Junto al Mar y lo han realizado exitosamente hasta ahora, son Isidra de la Vega, José Cruzado, Juan Miranda Marañón y Pablo Yariguíes. Gracias a la labor de estos intelectuales el 22 de mayo se celebraron en los colegios, escuelas y en los medios del Caribe de manera entusiasta y destacada el sesquicentenario del nacimiento del romántico Julio Flórez Roa. Los principales escenarios donde se desarrollaron las conferencias y recitales son: Hotel Pradomar, Puerto Colombia; Casa museo Julio Flórez, Usiacurí, Atlántico; Casa museo Gabriel García Márquez, Aracataca, Magdalena.

Poemas

Transcribimos dos poemas de Julio Flórez no solo como homenaje en el mes en que se cumple el sesquicentenario uno de su nacimiento, sino también para que los jóvenes lectores del semanario tengan un pequeño referente de su obra,

Porque se mató Silva

En lo más abrupto y alto

de un gran peñón de basalto,

detuvo un águila el vuelo:

miró hacia arriba, hacia arriba,

y se quedó pensativa

al ver que el azul del cielo

siempre alejándose iba.

 

Escrutó la enorme altura

y, con intensa amargura,

sintió cansancio en las alas.

(En la glacial lejanía

el sol moría, moría

entre sus sangrientas galas

bajo la pompa del día).

 

Y del peñón por un tajo,

miró hacia abajo, hacia abajo,

con desconsuelo profundo;

el ojo vivo y redondo

clavó luego en lo más hondo…

y asco sintió del mundo

¡vio tanto cieno en el fondo!

 

Si huía el azul del cielo,

si hervía el fango en el suelo,

¿cómo aplacar su tristeza?

Ah, fue tanta su aflicción

que, en su desesperación

se destrozó la cabeza

contra el siniestro peñón.

 

Cárcel perpetua

Yo vivo encadenado a tu hermosura,

lo mismo que a su roca, Prometeo;

sin poder quebrantar la ligadura

que me une a ti… por más que forcejeo.

 

¿De qué delito bárbaro fui reo,

para tener que soportar tan dura

y a la vez dulce pena? Mi deseo

es un placer que llega a la tortura.

 

Me atraes como abismo luminoso;

lucho, por arrancarme de tu lado,

con las fuerzas terribles de un coloso.

 

¡Inútil! A vivir siempre abrazado

a tu cuerpo flexible y armonioso

parece que estuviera condenado.

 

Valoración de la obra de Julio Flores

Los críticos colombianos se dividen entre quienes consideran a Julio Flórez como un poeta señero, significativo en la poesía de Colombia escrita a finales del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Lo apellidaron el último de los románticos. Otros críticos consideran que es un poeta de menor significación en la literatura colombiana. Sin que tomemos partido en esa caracterización polémica, debemos destacar que nadie pone en duda que su poesía hasta mediados del siglo XX era conocida y recitada por el pueblo; sin temor a equivocarnos, afirmamos que por ejemplo poemas como Mis flores negras, Oh poetas, Abstracciones, Idilio eterno, La araña y Resurrecciones, entre muchas otras, eran conocidos y comentados por el común de los colombianos aún entre los campesinos y como cosa insólita por analfabetas que los conocían de oídas, porque sus compañeros alfabetos campesinos u obreros los declamaban en sus encuentros.

Julio Flórez fue coronado como Poeta Nacional, en Usiacurí, Atlántico, en enero de 1923, año en que falleció en esa misma población. Los periódicos de la época escribieron el carácter selecto y masivo de la concurrencia que acudió a la pequeña población del Atlántico. Concurrencia selecta porque intelectuales de todo el país se desplazaron al sitio de la coronación. Masiva porque de todos los departamentos de la Costa Atlántica y por supuesto de Barranquilla, hubo movilizaciones en automóviles, en móviles de sangre, como se decía en la época a los tirados por burros y caballos e inclusive a pie recorriendo grandes distancias como suelen hacer los campesinos.

“Flórez, con su obra, muestra lo que era una Colombia sometida y triste, dominada por una hegemonía conservadora, casi dictatorial. Ese momento de guerra civil, amordazamiento y represión fueron vividas por el poeta e impactaron en su espíritu y su poesía”, Margarita Macías, directora ejecutiva de la Casa Julio Flórez, comenta en el periódico El Heraldo de Barranquilla.

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