Juego a tres bandas: Duque desconoce protocolos con el ELN

107
En el país crecen las reclamaciones de paz y el rechazo a la guerra.

El gobierno no puede escudarse en el argumento peregrino de que no participó en la mesa de negociación porque, a la luz de esta consideración, los acuerdos con las FARC serían inválidos para este gobierno, y eso es inaceptable

Alberto Acevedo

Una ola generalizada de rechazo a la actitud del presidente Iván Duque de desconocer los protocolos de negociación suscritos con el ELN, y al mismo tiempo de reclamo para que se reanuden las conversaciones de paz y se evite que Colombia transite de nuevo por el despeñadero de la guerra, se han producido en las dos últimas semanas, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional.

Las posiciones más enérgicas, como era de esperarse, provienen de las cancillerías de los países garantes de las negociaciones, Cuba y Noruega, que advierten que son respetuosos del derecho internacional, y van a respetar los términos del protocolo suscrito entre el gobierno colombiano y la guerrilla del ELN, en lo relacionado con el rompimiento de negociaciones, como se ha producido en la actualidad.

Esta visión fue compartida por el gobierno alemán, cuyo ministro de Estado, Michael Roth, fustigó duramente al gobierno de Iván Duque por desconocer los protocolos pactados con el ELN y solicitar al gobierno cubano la captura y entrega de los negociadores de la insurgencia.

Diplomacia fallida

En el Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, en la OEA y en otras instancias internacionales, fracasó la diplomacia colombiana en su empeño por conseguir un respaldo mayor al desconocimiento de los protocolos de negociación con la insurgencia. Llama la atención que tampoco el Grupo de Lima, tan afecto a las posturas del gobierno de Duque, haya hecho mención del tema. Otros dos países garantes, Chile y Ecuador, respaldaron a Duque en su condena al atentado contra la Escuela de Cadetes en Bogotá, pero no hicieron pronunciamiento alguno en torno al tema de los protocolos.

En el escenario nacional, tras un proceso de reflexión sobre el significado de la acción dinamitera por parte de un sector del ELN, numerosos analistas coinciden en señalar que si bien el hecho es reprobable, no otorga credenciales al presidente Duque, ni para desconocer los protocolos ni para enterrar las negociaciones de paz que se adelantaban con esa insurgencia. Otro camino, es el de la guerra, el de la confrontación armada, que en el pasado dejó una estela de muertes, de fragmentación nacional, de luto y dolor entre las familias colombianas.

Se pronuncia la Iglesia

El abanico de las voces que reclaman sentarse de nuevo a la mesa de conversaciones es grande. El expresidente César Gaviria a nombre del Partido Liberal, indicó que “no comparte ni apoya el desconocimiento del Gobierno de los protocolos pactados con los países garantes”. Otro exmandatario, Ernesto Samper, dijo por su parte: “El gobierno no puede escudarse en el argumento peregrino de que no participó en la mesa de negociación porque, a la luz de esta consideración, los acuerdos con las FARC serían inválidos para este gobierno, y eso es inaceptable”.

La dirección nacional de la Unión Patriótica hizo un pronunciamiento, cuyos términos son reseñados en otra parte de esta misma edición. Un encuentro nacional de fuerzas progresistas y de izquierda, convocado para este fin de semana, seguramente tomará partido en el tema. Hasta el capitán Julio Díaz, piloto de una aeronave secuestrada por el ELN, pidió, al recuperar su libertad, dialogar con esa guerrilla para aclimatar un ambiente de entendimiento entre compatriotas.

Muy significativo es el pronunciamiento hecho a última hora por la Conferencia Episcopal Colombiana, que se reúne hasta este fin de semana, en el que los obispos del país piden reanudar el diálogo con el ELN, y adelantar diálogos regionales, para tomar el pulso de la compleja realidad que viven las comunidades, afectadas por un conflicto que aún no llega a su término. “Ni un muerto más a causa del conflicto. Dialogar ya con el ELN”, fueron los términos en que se expresaron los prelados.

Entre las organizaciones sociales que han hecho pronunciamientos, se destaca el de la Coordinación Colombia-Europa-Estados Unidos, Cceeu y el Movimiento de Víctimas de Crímenes de Estado, Movice, en el que “rechaza las decisiones del gobierno del presidente Iván Duque y su canciller Carlos Holmes Trujillo de declarar que la paz no es política de Estado y desconocer los protocolos adoptados en caso de ruptura de negociaciones”. Esa posición, dicen los firmantes “constituye un agravio al derecho internacional y una afrenta a la buena voluntad y la cooperación desinteresada y solidaria de los países garantes”.

Ninguna negociación sería posible

En el plano del derecho internacional analistas consideran que en relación a la exigencia del gobierno colombiano al de Cuba, para que capture y entregue al equipo negociador de la guerrilla, no solo es una torpeza, sino un error jurídico, pues contribuye al asilamiento y a la pérdida de autoridad de Colombia en el concierto latinoamericano y mundial.

Por lo demás, en la suscripción de protocolos como el que ahora Iván Duque desconoce, las partes actúan como representantes del Estado y sus instrumentos jurídicos de expresión. Sus actuaciones comprometen internacionalmente al Estado. Si no existen garantías para las partes, ninguna negociación de paz sería posible.

Los protocolos representan un compromiso internacional del Estado colombiano y este debe cumplirse de buena fe. Si otros Estados asumieran una posición similar, sencillamente no habría derecho internacional, ni soporte a las relaciones pacíficas entre las naciones. En este sentido, la exigencia a Cuba, viola la doctrina del derecho internacional y el régimen de garantías para las partes que negocian. Esta postura es un acto de perfidia, ha dicho un reconocido analista jurídico.

Hacia el futuro, ningún Estado serio aceptaría ser garante en un proceso de paz en Colombia, sabiendo que les van a cambiar las reglas de juego, y ningún guerrillero aceptaría negociar, si en cualquier momento lo pueden capturar. La comunidad internacional por su parte, va a pensar que Colombia tiene un Estado poco fiable en cualquier negociación o suscripción de un tratado.

Es curiosa la nueva diplomacia colombiana. En las dos o tres semanas anteriores, hizo una gira por el mundo, buscando, en su opinión, aislar al ELN y concitar respaldo para el desconocimiento de unos protocolos que tienen fuerza de tratado internacional. Al mismo tiempo, la diplomacia colombiana abogaba por las sanciones al gobierno de Nicolás Maduro y el golpe de Estado contra el proceso bolivariano en Venezuela. Y de paso, hacía la tarea de lacayo, facilitando una mayor injerencia norteamericana en América Latina. Un juego a tres bandas. Solo que en esta ocasión, como dicarían los buenos billaristas, Iván Duque tacó burro.

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