A insistir en la mesa Gobierno-ELN

171
Gustavo Bell, jefe del equipo negociador de paz del gobierno Santos, con Pablo Beltrán, jefe del equipo negociador de paz del ELN. Foto internet.

Suspendida la negociación, es necesario insistir en la solución política al conflicto armado y la lucha por la paz

Redacción política

Como en la época cuando gobernaba Álvaro Uribe, donde el relato era la guerra contra el terrorismo y la política de negociación era la rendición del contradictor armado, el gobierno de Iván Duque ha expuesto lo que considera debe ser el camino a seguir con el ELN: Desmovilización, desarme y reincorporación (DDR).

Así lo anunció el pasado 8 de septiembre, dando cuenta de la suspensión de los diálogos con esta insurgencia haciendo del futuro de la mesa en La Habana un momento incierto de la política nacional. Y aunque el ELN en los últimos días ha liberado a seis personas que estaban en su poder, aún no existe bandera verde por parte del gobierno para continuar la negociación.

Las posiciones

En Pasto el 12 de septiembre de 2018, tras la segunda liberación unilateral de seis personas retenidas por el Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN, en el Chocó, como demostración de disposición al diálogo, el presidente Iván Duque inicia su intervención: “Celebro que haya hoy personas que estén regresando a sus hogares… y si hay genuina voluntad de paz (por parte del ELN) ahí estará el gobierno”. Sin embargo caracterizó lo que para el gobierno significa voluntad de paz: “… (ésta) empieza con la liberación de todos los secuestrados”; le resta reconocimiento político al ELN nombrándolo como “…grupo armado organizado (GAO)…” y condiciona aún más la posibilidad del diálogo a “la suspensión de todas las actividades criminales” pues “de lo contrario sería legitimar la violencia como método para hacerse escuchar del Estado”. Es decir, niega la existencia de un conflicto armado.

Por su parte esta insurgencia en editorial de su revista Insurrección número 650, órgano de difusión del Comando Central, COCE, comienza solicitándole al gobierno no repetir los errores del pasado “…al desconocer la existencia de fuerzas rebeldes y reducir sus acciones a simples actividades criminales (…) y la paz al sometimiento de la insurgencia (…) mientras el resto de la realidad del país sigue igual”. El ELN resalta los avances con el gobierno anterior a nombre del Estado: “…acuerdo sobre el diseño del proceso, sobre una agenda, sobre los acompañamientos internacionales, sobre la experiencia del cese bilateral”. Cuestiona al actual gobierno cambiar las condiciones: “al desconocer ustedes los acuerdos (…) unilateralmente con condiciones inaceptables, éste gobierno está cerrando la mesa…” y advierten que “la insurgencia es fruto de condiciones económicas, políticas y sociales (…) y que de no resolverse se perpetuaría el alzamiento armado”. Finalmente llaman al gobierno a que sin vacilaciones “reiniciemos el diálogo para buscar la paz, esa es la urgencia que reclama Colombia…”

El escenario

Lo claro en esta confrontación de posiciones políticas, es que el ELN tras más de 50 años de lucha armada no va a acceder al modelo de rendición del gobierno, quien a su vez lo propone así con la conciencia de que es una manera soterrada de romper la mesa.

Desde el gobierno Santos se ofertó la idea falsa de que con la firma del acuerdo con las FARC había una superación histórica de la guerra y que los reductos de las violencias en los territorios son un nuevo momento de la lucha contra el narcotráfico. El ELN como actor de la confrontación es desconocido para un grueso de la población y satanizado permanentemente por los distintos medios, oficiales y privados, así como los puntos de la agenda y los acuerdos hasta ahora alcanzados están condenados al anonimato.

El reiterado incumplimiento del acuerdo con las FARC (desestructuración de la reforma política, la inmovilidad de la reforma rural integral, el desconocimiento del acuerdo de sustitución de cultivos de uso ilícito, los cuestionamientos y trabas a la JEP, las precarias condiciones para la reinserción, la inseguridad jurídica para los mandos) así como la violencia sistemática contra los líderes sociales, demuestran que con el Acuerdo del Teatro Colón uno de los actores de la confrontación dejó las armas, pero el conflicto sigue vivo y quien lo padece es el pueblo colombiano.

Sintonía entre las luchas

El estancamiento de la mesa más que una responsabilidad unilateral de la insurgencia, tal y como lo han proyectado por meses los distintos medios masivos de comunicación, es una responsabilidad del establecimiento que no genera seguridad y confianza para el proceso de negociación.

La implementación del Acuerdo de La Habana con las FARC y la mesa de diálogo con el ELN, así como las demandas del movimiento social no pueden pensarse de manera separada: La agenda pactada en Quito, aunque pueda parecer confusa, tiene como eje la participación vinculante del conjunto de la sociedad en el rumbo del país; así mismo la participación política también está en el espíritu que atraviesa el Acuerdo con las FARC; las motivaciones para las consultas populares contra los mega-proyectos mineros, la movilización anti fracking, las demandas en las calles de los estudiantes y maestros, los esfuerzos de unidad de las organizaciones agrarias, afros e indígenas en la Cumbre Agraria para dialogar con el gobierno, hasta las protestas de los bogotanos por la tala indiscriminada de árboles de la administración Peñalosa, son todas expresiones que exigen a gritos participación en las decisiones hasta ahora reservadas a los grandes poderes políticos y económicos.

La realidad confirma que no existe otra alternativa. Territorios identificados históricamente como lugares del conflicto siguen siendo los mismos territorios heridos y maltratados por la dinámica de la violencia, la falta de oportunidades y la extrema pobreza. El problema estructural de Colombia no son los actores, que, como el ELN combinan política y armas, sino el estadio permanente de desigualdad social que permite de manera perversa la cíclica historia de viejas y nuevas tragedias.

Las masivas votaciones por la Colombia Humana y la Consulta Anticorrupción son indicadores de la inconformidad social y de un despertar político. La sintonía de todos los sectores sociales en el diálogo permanente y la movilización, deben servir como vehículos para construir una verdadera paz. Defender lo alcanzado en el Acuerdo de La Habana, mantener, avanzar con las reivindicaciones sociales y acompañar la mesa de diálogo con el ELN, son los mínimos para abrir definitivamente la democracia y se excluirá de una vez por todas y para siempre la violencia del ejercicio de la política.

En la noche del 19 de septiembre, el gobierno Duque decide retirar a toda la delegación de paz del Gobierno de La Habana.

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