Informalidad laboral: El Estado ni corta ni presta el hacha

148
Para los vendedores ambulantes, el ofi cio es su única oportunidad de vida.

Anuar Aguirre
@anuaran3

En estos días ha sido noticia nacional una multa de $800.000 impuesta a un joven por comprar una empanada a un vendedor ambulante en Bogotá. Esto a partir de la aplicación del artículo 140 del Código de Policía que contempla una sanción económica a quienes “promuevan el uso o la invasión del espacio público”.

Esta medida pone contra las cuerdas a quienes se ven obligados a rebuscar el sustento de sus familias a través de las ventas callejeras, debido a la falta de oportunidades y al desempleo, el cual cerró en el 2018 con un 9,7%, según cifras del DANE; (la misma entidad que para maquillar los indicadores del país categoriza como clase media a quienes devengan desde el 55% del Smmlv, unos $450.000 hasta $2.250.000).

Esta realidad hace que tan solo en la ciudad de Bogotá haya censados unos 20.373 vendedores ambulantes, lo que hace inevitable ver a estos trabajadores informales en todas las localidades del distrito ofreciendo sus productos a los ciudadanos. Esto para las autoridades es un problema porque a su modo de ver las cosas son personas que están haciendo uso inapropiado del espacio público o simplemente no están tributando al Estado por su actividad. Una problemática que no se debe ignorar, pues las personas necesitan subsistir y estos trabajos son la única oportunidad que encuentran.

Emprendedores por necesidad

Esta situación hace que el reto de los trabajadores informales resulte complejo para el país, pues al perseguirlos se está afectando gravemente el sustento de miles de madres cabeza de hogar, jóvenes sin oportunidades laborales, estudiantes que no encuentran otra manera de costear sus estudios, adultos mayores en condición de vulnerabilidad, desplazados por la violencia y a los migrantes venezolanos.

Según cifras del mismo DANE, los ocupados informales en las 13 principales ciudades y áreas metropolitanas alcanzaron un 46,9% para el último trimestre del año 2018. Para el total de las 23 ciudades y áreas metropolitanas fue 48,2%.

No hay trabajo

En el total nacional la población ocupada alcanza las 22.704.000 personas, el resto simplemente no encuentra un trabajo digno, sumado a esto, tener un título profesional no garantiza el acceso a un trabajo, lo demuestran las cifras del DANE, pues, el porcentaje de desocupación de los jóvenes entre los 18 a 28 años es de un 17,7%, siendo las mujeres quienes presentan un mayor índice. Sumado a esto, los hogares con madres cabeza de familia suelen ser más pobres y en Colombia 6 de cada 10 mujeres son madres solteras.

Con estas cifras el panorama resulta desalentador, pues a pesar de que el DANE afirma que el desempleo ha ido disminuyendo al punto de cerrar el 2018 en una sola cifra, si se asume que ser vendedor ambulante no significa ser empleado o tener empleo, a diferencia de lo que propone el DANE, el porcentaje superaría por mucho el 50% en todo el país.

Entonces, si no hay trabajo y se persigue el empleo informal, ¿qué pasará con las personas en paro en todo el país?

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