Huelga general de mujeres

166

Teniendo en cuenta que la brecha salarial de género es uno de los aspectos de desigualdad más visible que enfrentan las mujeres, colectivos feministas invitan a una huelga general de mujeres y hombres trabajadores el próximo 8 de marzo

Renata Cabrales
@RENATARELATA 

Desde hace más de 100 años, a nivel internacional, se ha venido celebrando el Día Internacional de la Mujer Trabajadora. Aún tal vez por ignorar de qué se trata esta importante conmemoración, muchas mujeres trabajadoras no reciben el reconocimiento que esperan, sino que en cambio se les agasaja con flores y chocolates, algo irónico en Colombia, en el caso de las flores, cuyo mercado se dispara en días como estos, pero muchos ignoran cuales son las pésimas condiciones laborales que deben enfrentar las mujeres floricultoras.

A nivel general, es necesario recordar que en el caso de las mujeres colombianas, según cifras oficiales del DANE, estas trabajan más horas, su participación  en el mercado laboral es bastante alta y a pesar que tienen más años de formación académica que los hombres, ganan en promedio un 20,2 por ciento menos que ellos, aun llevando a cabo las mismas funciones.

Se trata de una de las brechas salariales de género más altas de América Latina (cuya tasa promedio es del 17 por ciento), una región donde esta clase de inequidades son persistentes y profundas, particularmente en determinados grupos.

Según la Cepal, Comisión Econó­mica para América Latina y el Caribe, muchas mujeres no disponen de ingresos propios, reciben salarios más bajos y su inserción laboral es precaria y segmentada. Y poseen además, menos experiencia laboral  por dedicarse a las tareas del hogar. Esto y el hecho de ser muchas veces jefas de hogar con hijos, contribuye a lo que se llama la feminización de la pobreza.

La brecha salarial de género en países latinoamericanos como México, Perú, Uruguay, Brasil, es bastante considerable, según estudios del Grupo de Género y Desarrollo del Banco Mundial, más aún, cuando se trata de mujeres casadas y con hijos.

Así mismo, en su informe del año 2013, “Mujeres en la economía digital”, la Cepal advierte que en países como Colombia, de 48,6 horas promedio que trabajan ellas a la semana, reciben sueldos por 19,5, las demás no son remuneradas. A los hombres, en cambio, les pagan 40,3 de esas horas.

Leyes contra la brecha

Es de saber que el hecho de que muchos países hayan avanzado en la creación de leyes que garantizan muchos de los derechos de las mujeres es poco lo que se ha avanzado en el tema de la brecha salarial de género. Alemania e Islandia son los únicos países que, recientemente, acaban de tomar medidas legislativas con el fin de hacer posible la igualdad salarial entre hombres y mujeres. Islandia, por su parte, ya ha sido denominado uno de los países más igualitarios del mundo y según la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos, OCDE, es el país con mayor tasa de empleo y para merecer el título como el país más igualitario, solo le faltaba tomar medidas para abolir la brecha salarial de género por lo que aprobó una ley que obliga a todas las empresas que tengan más de 25 trabajadores en su nómina a hacer públicos los salarios tanto de hombres como de mujeres y además, certificar todos los años que sí cumplen con el principio de igualdad, de lo contrario pueden llegar a ser sancionadas.

Alemania, a diferencia de Islandia es uno de los países, miembro de la UE con mayor brecha salarial de género: el 21% frente al 16,3% de la media europea. Sin embargo, también ha optado por crear una nueva ley que hará posible que las empleadas de empresas que tengan más de 200 trabajadores puedan conocer el salario de sus compañeros.

Huelga feminista

Según ONU Mujeres: “En promedio, las mujeres ganan 77 centavos por cada dólar que hacen los hombres. En algunos países esa brecha es aún mayor. Por ejemplo, las mujeres en Suecia y Francia ganan 31% menos que los hombres. En Alemania esa diferencia es del 49% y en Turquía del 75%.

Así, mismo, advierte que: “A este paso, tomará 70 años cerrar esa brecha” y presentó otra iniciativa para acabar con este problema, a través de  la campaña “23% es un robo” con el fin de generar más conciencia sobre la diferencia salarial  y llamar a “la igualdad y el fortalecimiento de la mujer en el mercado laboral”.

Es por eso que diversos colectivos feministas, de diferentes países, pero principalmente de España y Argentina, han estado convocando una huelga feminista para que participen tanto mujeres como hombres trabajadores, pues se advierte que de otra forma sería ilegal. Pero invitan sobre todo a las mujeres obreras a participar pues es una buena forma de hacer evidente que sin el trabajo femenino, asalariado o no, el mundo no funciona.

Así pues, al ser Colombia uno de los pases más desiguales no solo en el aspecto laboral, es necesario que las mujeres tomen conciencia de esta situación y se unan a la huelga con el fin de exigir el fin de la brecha salarial que no solo las perjudica a ellas sino a la economía nacional.

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