¿Gobierno da la espalda a los Parques Naturales?

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Caño Cristales, ubicado en el Parque Nacional Sierra de la Macarena. Foto de Anzorc.

Agencia Prensa Rural

Se ha desatado un fuerte debate alrededor de la presencia de campesinos en las áreas del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales (SPNN). Esta discusión surge como resultado de las medidas que el gobierno ha venido realizando para implementar el Acuerdo de Paz, especialmente lo que tiene que ver con los puntos 1 y 4 del mencionado acuerdo.

Son diversos los argumentos que tanto campesinos, como entidades públicas han esgrimido en el marco de este debate, sin embargo son los campesinos quienes se siguen viendo afectados por un problema que, pese a haber tomado, fuerza como debate de la opinión publica nacional, es de vieja data y tiene hondas raíces en el conflicto social y armado que ha vivido Colombia en el último medio siglo de existencia republicana.

Por un lado las comunidades campesinas y sus organizaciones han declarado que su permanencia en áreas declaradas como Parque Natural se debe especialmente a la guerra y al constante desplazamiento que sufrieron las comunidades campesinas durante muchos años.

De otro lado están el Estado y sus instituciones, quienes consideran que la existencia de los Parques Naturales debe darse sin la presencia de campesinos.

Medio siglo de guerra

Durante las más de cinco décadas que duró el conflicto armado entre las FARC y el Estado colombiano muchas fueron las afectaciones que vivió la sociedad colombiana, pero esto aplica para el medio ambiente, al que muchos consideran también debe ser reconocido como víctima de la guerra.

Bombas arrojadas contra reservas ambientales, cultivos de uso ilícito en bosques húmedos tropicales, carreteras y caminos abiertos entre selvas para suministros, desplazamientos y asentamientos en áreas del SPNN, son algunas de las afectaciones que sufrió el medio ambiente a causa del conflicto armado.

Sin embargo, para el tema en especifico que se trata aquí, interesan los asentamientos campesinos en Parques Naturales. Esta situación o esta realidad deriva del constante desplazamiento de campesinos mas allá de la frontera agrícola, pues cada vez que los paramilitares o las fuerzas del Estado llegaban a zonas donde habitaban comunidades campesinas y donde también había presencia de la insurgencia, aquellos obligaban a los campesinos a abandonar sus tierras e internarse “selva adentro”.

Esta situación llevó a que campesinos se asentaran en zonas que posteriormente fueron declaradas como áreas del SPNN. También se dio la situación de que llegaran a zonas que ya habían sido declaradas pero que por desconocimiento o por la misma violencia sirvieron como territorios para habitar y así alejarse de las amenazas contra sus vidas.

Se puede decir que hay campesinos que habitan esos territorios hace mas de 40, 50 o hasta 60 años, de esta manera se entiende que cualquier decisión que se tome sobre ellos debe ser concertada directamente con los campesinos y no de manera unilateral y desde un escritorio en Bogotá, así lo han hecho saber las organizaciones campesinas que se oponen a la postura del Gobierno frente a este tema.

Unilateralidad del Gobierno

Desde el año 2012 existe una política del actual gobierno de tratar de solucionar los problemas que existen debido a los conflictos que se generan en las áreas del SPNN. Mediante el Acuerdo para la Prosperidad 079 de 2012 el Gobierno creó la “Política Pública Participativa para la Solución de Conflictos Territoriales en Áreas del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia”.

Fue mediante la aplicación de ese Acuerdo que se logró crear la Mesa de Concertación Nacional (MCN) con campesinos e instituciones del Estado. Sin embargo las organizaciones campesinas han declarado que pese a la formalidad legal con que está investida la MNC, ésta no funciona como ha sido planeada en el papel, pues es constante la unilateralidad en la presentación de propuestas que terminan por convertirse en políticas del gobierno, lesionando aun más la confianza de los campesinos para con el Estado.

Recientemente la delegación campesina en la Mesa de Concertación Nacional denunció este tipo de prácticas por parte de funcionarios del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, específicamente de Parques Nacionales Naturales (PNN), institución adscrita a ese ministerio.

La denuncia de los campesinos se refería a la presentación ante la Comisión de Seguimiento, Impulso y Verificación a la Implementación -Csivi, por parte de PNN de un proyecto de Decreto Ley que no había sido consensuado con los campesinos en la Mesa de Concertación Nacional.

Dicho proyecto de Decreto Ley resulta lesivo para las organizaciones campesinas, quienes advierten que “tiene como objetivo la salida de los campesinos de las áreas del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia, que incluye, entre otras medidas el `desmonte de las actividades campesinas´ como la agricultura, lo que vulnera derechos fundamentales campesinos como la alimentación”.

Armonizar la conservación

Pese a la unilateralidad del gobierno, los campesinos no han cesado en su lucha por su reconocimiento como sujetos de conservación ambiental. Por ello le presentaron a las FARC un proyecto de Decreto Ley con el que buscan armonizar la conservación de las áreas del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia, con el bienestar y buen vivir de las comunidades campesinas que las habitan, permitiendo su permanencia en el territorio mediante la reconversión productiva, apoyada por el Estado, hacia Sistemas Agrarios Sostenibles para la Conservación (SASC) que contribuyan a frenar la deforestación, cerrar la frontera agrícola y a minimizar los impactos negativos sobre los ecosistemas, dejando áreas disponibles para iniciar proyectos participativos de restauración ecológica.

Dicha propuesta fue acogida por la delegación de las FARC que hace parte de la Csivi, y fue presentada para ser discutida y concertada con el gobierno.

Sin embargo, las partes no se han logrado poner de acuerdo y aun persisten diferencias fundamentales entre las dos propuestas, lo que ha implicado una demora en la elaboración de un solo proyecto de Decreto Ley.

Para las organizaciones campesinas la actitud del gobierno va en contravía del Acuerdo de Paz, pues es claro que este tiene como uno de sus principios la participación activa de las comunidades rurales en la construcción de paz territorial.

Cabe anotar que dentro del Acuerdo de Paz, existe una acápite en el que se hace explícito el compromiso adquirido por el Gobierno para cerrar la frontera agrícola y proteger las zonas de reserva (subpunto 1.1.10).

En dicho subpunto, queda por escrito que el gobierno está obligado a apoyar a las comunidades campesinas que se encuentran en áreas del SPNN para que elaboren planes de conservación y de reforestación ambiental, así como de apoyar programas de reasentamiento, en el caso que así lo desee la familia campesina.

Es por ello que para la delegación campesina en la Mesa de Concertación Nacional resulta contrario al espíritu del Acuerdo y al proceso de paz mismo, la actitud que el Gobierno, en especial Parques Nacionales Naturales, ha venido esgrimiendo a la hora de llevar a cabo la implementación de lo acordado, pero mas aún cuando previo al Acuerdo de Paz había sido emitido un Acuerdo para la Prosperidad con el que se buscaba desarrollar una política pública para solucionar los conflictos territoriales en áreas del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales.

@PrensaRural

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