G20: Tregua en guerra comercial

Aspecto de las movilizaciones en Buenos Aires en contra de la cumbre neoliberal del G20.

Un recetario de “ambigüedades constructivas” constituye la declaración final de las grandes potencias reunidas en Buenos Aires, en un escenario de encuentros bilaterales en que muchos de los temas de la agenda propuesta no fueron abordados

Alberto Acevedo

La reunión de los presidentes Donald Trump, de los Estados Unidos, y Xi Jinping, de China, en la tarde del pasado sábado primero de diciembre, al término de la Cumbre del G-20, fue el verdadero suceso de la cita de jefes de estado de las grandes potencias, reunidas en Buenos Aires. La “tregua” decretada por los dos gobernantes, constituyó la  noticia destacada de la reunión, en la que China, Rusia y Estados Unidos, fueron los protagonistas.

Los líderes de las dos potencias suscribieron un acuerdo en el que aplazan por 90 días la disputa comercial que mantienen a raíz del anuncio del mandatario norteamericano de incrementar de un 10 a un 25 por ciento el precio de los aranceles que cobraría al gigante asiático por las importaciones de productos norteamericanos. Como se sabe, China respondió con una medida similar y por un monto en dólares proporcional a la medida de Trump.

Durante el tiempo de vigencia de la tregua, las partes buscarán un acuerdo duradero sobre propiedad intelectual, robo de tecnología y barreras comerciales no arancelarias. Las partes se comprometen a suspender su intento de aumentar tarifas arancelarias a partir del primero de enero próximo y China acepta comprar “una cantidad aún no acordada pero muy importante de productos agrícolas, energéticos e industriales de Estados Unidos, para reducir el déficit comercial entre ambos países”, según comunicado de la Casa Blanca.

Los peligros no terminan

Los grandes medios de comunicación occidentales había cifrado en los resultados de este encuentro la idea de si el mundo asistiría a una nueva ‘guerra fría’ o no. Se aplaza, por ahora, pero no se conjura el peligro. Lo que está en juego en la guerra comercial de Trump no es solo el problema de los aranceles. Lo es también el manejo de la tecnología de nueva generación, el espionaje tecnológico y comercial.

Pero en una nueva guerra fría influyen también la renuncia de Estados Unidos a los acuerdos de control de armas nucleares con Rusia, Irán, Corea del Norte; las sanciones unilaterales de Washington a una serie de países, incluidos Rusia y China. Y estos asuntos no fueron resueltos por la cumbre del G20.

En esta negociación, Trump no ha resultado el ganador absoluto, como lo insinúan algunos analistas. De hecho, sacrificando su arrogancia, ha tenido que posponer las sanciones a China y sentarse a la mesa con quien ha calificado en repetidas ocasiones como su “peor enemigo”.


A raíz del acuerdo de Francia y China para impulsar acciones conjuntas contra el cambio climático; en la declaración del resto de potencias occidentales, incluyendo Francia y Alemania de defender el multilateralismo, frente a las medidas proteccionistas de Washington, además de los acuerdos entre Putin y la premier británica Theresa May, en todos estos acontecimientos se marca el aislamiento cada vez mayor de la política norteamericana en el escenario internacional.

En cambio sí fueron protagonistas de primera línea los participantes en la Cumbre de los Pueblos, que entre el 28 y el 30 de noviembre se reunió en Buenos Aires, por convocatoria de unas sesenta organizaciones sociales y políticas, tanto del país austral como del exterior, para discutir una agenda alternativa a la cumbre del G20. La reunión alternativa llamó a confrontar el modelo neoliberal dominante en la región y protagonizó vigorosas movilizaciones antiG20, que no pudieron ser ocultadas, ni por la represión del gobierno de Macri, ni por los grandes medios de comunicación.

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