Flora Tristán, una revolucionaria del mundo obrero

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La escritora francesa fue una reconocida líder del socialismo del siglo XIX. Sus aportes teóricos y su práctica política en el movimiento de la clase obrera dejaron una huella rebelde y feminista en la historia política de la humanidad hasta nuestros días

Nidia Jaydivi Colorado G.

Flora Tristán nació en París, Francia, el 7 de abril de 1803 y murió a sus 41 años el 14 de noviembre de 1844 en Burdeos, Francia. Era hija ilegítima de un coronel peruano, quien muere cuando ella tenía tan sólo 4 años. Su madre francesa cae en la miseria con la temprana muerte de su esposo y su hija no alcanza a ser reconocida legalmente.

Su familia la obligó a casarse con el dueño de una litografía en la que trabajaba desde los 16 años. Con este hombre, André Chazal, tendría tres hijos de los cuales el primero muere, quedando vivos Ernest y Aline, la futura madre del conocido artista plástico Paul Gauguin. A los 22 años Flora decide separase por maltratos y problemas de convivencia con su esposo, huye con sus dos hijos y emprende una aventura libertaria como mujer separada.

Este periodo de su vida es uno de los más complejos por todas las adversidades económicas, morales y emocionales que debe enfrentar como consecuencia de su separación y la posterior estigmatización social. Gracias a la colaboración de varios conocidos puede viajar a Perú el país de su padre, con el propósito de reclamar sus derechos y su lugar en la sociedad, pero dicho propósito nunca logra concretarse.

Sus obras

Las obras de Flora Tristán se escriben principalmente desde su propia experiencia. Ella plantea un análisis político de la condición subalterna y dependiente de las mujeres de su época, identifica la inequidad de género que constituye ser mujer en el siglo XIX, claramente en su obra “Mi Vida”, señala el rechazo social que afronta una mujer que toma sus propias decisiones y que no reproduce el estándar de comportamiento típicamente patriarcal, establecido en su época.

Este tipo de circunstancias fueron tan extremas, que su esposo en 1839 le disparó a quema ropa a plena luz del sol por que no aceptaba su divorcio ni la pérdida de una mujer, a la cual consideraba su propiedad. Como consecuencia del hecho, ella vivió con una bala en su pecho y él pagó 20 años de condena por intento de homicidio.

La vida personal de Flora no era el único factor que funcionaba como fuente de sus producciones intelectuales, también lo fueron las corrientes socialistas francesas conocidas como los socialistas utópicos. La influencia en la ideas de Flora se conformó por un entramado de tendencias y las características propias de su contexto histórico. Sin embargo, los postulados de Flora van más allá de lo que planteaban los socialistas utópicos a cerca de una clase social ideal, capaz de liderar los procesos de transformación social.

Para Flora Tristán la clase revolucionaria es en realidad la clase obrera, su posición de obrera desde la adolescencia le ayuda a identificar la contradicción de clase que posteriormente teorizará Karl Marx. En ese sentido su obra La Unión Obrera de 1844, habla de una clase social trabajadora universal y allí plantea la necesidad de una unidad de la clase trabajadora, entendida como una asociación política e internacional, lo cual se convertiría en un antecedente de la Primera Internacional de los trabajadores en el año de 1864.

Evidentemente el interés por la clase obrera surge a partir de su propia experiencia de vida y de las decisiones de independencia económica que no logra concretar con su familia, sino sólo trabajando como una obrera más y es allí donde se ubica en un espacio social muy diferente al que podría haber obtenido con su parentesco o su relación familiar, si los acontecimientos de su historia de vida hubiesen sido diferentes.

Por medio de su análisis político de la sociedad y su experiencia de vida como mujer, relaciona dos dimensiones ocultas en el contexto social, el género y la clase social. Allí no sólo ubica el papel de la mujer en la sociedad sino que además ubica la clase social emancipadora y en ella el papel de la mujer obrera, dejando así un inmenso legado para el movimiento feminista y el movimiento obrero. Ella va a plantear no sólo una lucha por la igualdad sino que particularizará las diferencias de la lucha de las mujeres identificando los objetivos políticos de aquellas que son mujeres obreras.

El porqué de sus reclamos

De Unión Obrera en el capítulo Por qué menciono a las mujeres, habla de las mujeres elaborando extensas descripciones de la lamentable condición de la mujer ante el domino del hombre, es un relato bastante simple, en sus propias palabras y con mucha indignación, de allí es importante resaltar este fragmento en el que dice:

“Reclamo derechos para la mujer porque estoy convencida de que todas las desgracias de este mundo provienen de este olvido y desprecio que se ha hecho hasta ahora de los derechos naturales e imprescriptibles del ser mujer. Reclamo derechos para la mujer porque es la única manera para que se atienda su educación y porque de la educación de la mujer depende la del hombre en general y en particular la del hombre del pueblo. Reclamo derechos para la mujer porque es la única manera de lograr su rehabilitación ante la iglesia, ante la ley y ante la sociedad, y porque es necesaria esa rehabilitación previa para que los mismos obreros sean rehabilitados. Todos los males de la clase obrera se resumen en estas dos palabras: miseria e ignorancia, ignorancia y miseria. Ahora bien, para salir de ese dédalo no veo más que una sola manera: comenzar por instruir a las mujeres, porque las mujeres son encargadas de criar a los niños, machos y hembras”.

Hoy en día Flora Tristán representa uno de los antecedentes más importantes de la lucha de las mujeres obreras del mundo, ella tuvo la sensibilidad histórica y social de entender su contexto personal como un contexto político, al mismo tiempo logra ser una líder reconocida en el movimiento obrero y en las corrientes filosóficas del momento.

Su posición siempre estuvo dirigida a resaltar el papel de la clase obrera e identificar la mujer como parte de la construcción social, en ese sentido decide expresar en sus letras la miserable condición de la mujer trabajadora en su familia, en su trabajo y en su propia realidad social. Sus obras hacen llamados permanentes a una transformación social verdadera para las mujeres también.

Por eso es importante recordarla y dedicarle este artículo a una mujer que no se comportó como una intelectual de escritorio, sino que fue una militante orgánica de la causa, que luchó desde su propio lugar, es decir desde su cuerpo, desde su propia existencia.

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