¿Fisuras en la cúspide?: Ortodoxia fiscal y reactivación

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La propuesta de la ANDI para reactivar la economía es que el Banco de la República entregue un crédito a 30 años para mantener las utilidades de las grandes empresas

En contravía del credo neoliberal, los grandes industriales exigen que el Gobierno salve las empresas, no obstante, olvidan a los pequeños y medianos empresarios y a los trabajadores

Carlos Fernández*

El presidente de la ANDI, Bruce Mac Master, sorprendió el ambiente económico y político del país al proponer, en la apertura del 5º Congreso Empresarial y la 76º Asamblea Nacional del gremio, que el Banco de la República le otorgara al Gobierno nacional un crédito a un plazo de entre 30 y 50 años, con condiciones flexibles, bajos intereses, eventualmente renovable, para que dispusiera de los recursos necesarios para financiar la creación de un fondo para el rescate y salvamento de empresas.

La idea tiene como premisa que, en las actuales circunstancias, según Mac Master, para reactivar la economía es más eficaz salvar empresas que crear nuevas. «Queremos proponerle al país que podamos tener más créditos de fomento, podamos apoyar aún más el pago de nóminas, quizás hay que hacer un tratamiento tributario especial, incluso hay que pensar en la posibilidad de inyectar recursos en formas diferentes a las del pasado. Esto debemos acompañarlo con una estrategia de crecimiento, internacionalización y aumento de la inversión» dijo el dirigente gremial.

La respuesta del Gobierno vino de labios del presidente Duque en la clausura del Congreso, cuando informó que se constituiría una comisión público-privada de alto nivel que estudiara y diera recomendaciones sobre las medidas indispensables para reactivar la economía y el tejido empresarial. Mac Master agradeció despachándose contra la corrupción y el populismo, en este último caso, en una velada alusión a Petro por su llamado a la desobediencia civil.

La tras-escena de este tinglado

El evento de la ANDI, en general, y las declaraciones de su presidente, en particular, sacaron a la luz varias cuestiones que vale la pena poner de presente:

  1. El llamado a que el Gobierno Nacional consiga recursos de crédito del Banco de la República es un desconocimiento frontal del cuestionado principio fiscal y monetario que considera que los préstamos del Banco central de un país a su gobierno constituyen una pésima práctica generadora de inflación, de elevadas tasas de interés y de desaliento a la inversión. De ahí que, inmediatamente, hayan saltado al ring algunos de los gurús más destacados del aparato ideológico del bloque de poder dominante (ANIF, Fedesarrollo) a señalar lo inconveniente de la propuesta, según el credo neoliberal. Esto podría estar indicando una cierta fisura en dicho bloque pero, como ya se señaló, la cuestión quedó zanjada con el ofrecimiento presidencial de la citada comisión público-privada.
  2. La propuesta está señalando, implícitamente, que no es conveniente que el Estado se financie, para atender la crisis, con recursos de deuda obtenidos a tasas de interés vigentes en el mercado nacional e internacional. Además, que la reactivación no es un asunto de un día para otro sino que demanda años; que, por eso, el préstamo del Banco de la República al Estado debe hacerse a tasas bajas y que los recursos deben ser utilizados bajo la modalidad de créditos de fomento, modalidad que se utilizó hace más de 50 años, cuando un sector de la burguesía colombiana todavía pensaba en desarrollar un capitalismo propio, cosa que hoy no sucede. Claro, también plantea un régimen tributario especial pues es norma que los capitalistas busquen siempre eludir o evadir sus obligaciones fiscales.
  3. Esta iniciativa muestra, también, que, ante la magnitud de la crisis que ya se veía venir y que se aceleró con la pandemia y que afecta mayormente a los sectores verdaderamente productivos, los que generan la riqueza del país, los «principios» dejan de serlo. Estamos hablando de que la propuesta surge de un gremio que reúne a los más grandes industriales y empresarios de otros sectores, que han imbricado sus intereses con los de los capitalistas del sector financiero y con el capital transnacional, que han adoptado la ideología neoliberal predominante pero que, ante la perspectiva de la quiebra, no tienen ningún empacho en abandonar la ideología con la que han manejado la economía.
  4. También cabe resaltar que esta propuesta implica un reconocimiento de que sólo el Estado está en capacidad de tomar las medidas y adelantar las acciones requeridas para lograr la reactivación. Los capitalistas siempre pidieron menos Estado y más libertad para negociar «hasta el mismo cielo azul», como decía el maestro Jorge Zalamea. Pero, de ejecutarse la propuesta, no habría cambios en la composición de clase del Estado. Éste seguiría en manos del mismo bloque de poder.

¿A quién hay que salvar?

Si bien, en la clausura del Congreso, el presidente de la ANDI no insistió en su propuesta, el presidente Duque no sólo le prometió la comisión de alto nivel mencionada más arriba sino que, inmediatamente, le informó al país que su gobierno le iba a conceder un préstamo de 370 millones de dólares a la empresa Avianca para financiar, parcialmente, su plan de reactivación (que cuesta 2.000 millones de dólares). Avianca es una empresa que, hoy en día, no es colombiana, que tiene como principal accionista al represor Efromovich (recordar el paro de pilotos), preso en Brasil por soborno dentro de la operación lava jato y, lo peor, va a ser financiada con recursos del FOME, financiado, a su vez, con dineros de las pensiones de los entes territoriales y del Fondo de Riesgos Laborales, a los que ni siquiera se les paga intereses.

Siendo audaz (audacia que le duró poco a Mac Master), la propuesta es restrictiva, aunque apele a argumentos como el empleo y el crecimiento, pues se orienta sólo al salvamento de empresas industriales y de otros sectores que eran sólidas hasta ahora. En toda esta discusión, no se ha hecho mención a los pequeños y medianos empresarios, afiliados o no a ACOPI, a los trabajadores por cuenta propia, muchos de los cuales son asalariados disfrazados de las grandes empresas, a los que viven del día a día ni a los asalariados, formales o informales, de pequeños y medianos negocios.

El campo popular, los trabajadores, deberán elaborar propuestas y luchar y exigir medidas como ésta, junto con otras como la renta básica, el cambio en el régimen de salud y, en general, reformas estructurales que los capitalistas y su gobierno están planteando, pero en términos desfavorables a los sectores populares.

* Economista.

Alfonso Conde, in memoriam. “Señora Muerte que se va llevando todo lo bueno que en nosotros topa”, León de Greiff”

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