El éxtasis de la clase media

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Movilización estudiantil en Bogotá. Foto Boris Orjuela.

Yezid Arteta Dávila
@Yezid_Ar_D

Stalin con su camarilla de georgianos robaba bancos en el Cáucaso para que Lenin pudiera escribir sus folletines en Ginebra. A los pobres del campo, publicado en 1903, es uno de esos folletines. Describe la suerte de los propietarios-proletarios cuya suerte es la de tener un pedazo de tierra que no les da para vivir. Se ven obligados a emplearse como asalariados para ganarse el pan y el vino. “Los materiales”, como llama la izquierda clásica a sus textos de estudio, vuelven una y otra vez sobre la pequeña burguesía, la categoría dada por Marx y sus teóricos a una clase que está en medio de los burgueses y proletarios. Los mejores ideólogos del marxismo crecieron en el seno de la pequeña burguesía. Plejánov, escribió Lenin, descubrió esa paradoja.

A raíz de los recientes sucesos de Chile y Bolivia diversos analistas se han referido al hiperprotagonismo de la clase media. Algunos de estos analistas recurren al simplismo de echarle la culpa a la clase media del golpe de Estado contra el gobierno legítimo de Evo Morales. Son los que recurren a la noción pueril de responsabilizar al pueblo del auge de la extrema derecha o la debacle de la izquierda en los procesos electorales. Otros analistas generalizan al punto de otorgarles a la clase media el mismo papel en Chile, Bolivia o Colombia. En las revueltas de Chile la clase media obra como progresista y en Bolivia como retrógrada. En las elecciones del 27-O la clase media metropolitana reformó en beneficio de la paz el mapa político colombiano.

Las aspiraciones de la clase media no siempre son las mismas. En ocasiones no son “ni chicha ni limoná” como cantaba Víctor Jara. En Francia y Chile sus reclamos son mayoritariamente económicos en vista de la precarización de su modo de vida. En Colombia buscan saneamiento de las instituciones, tolerancia, educación y políticas medioambientales. En Bolivia la clase media fue llevada a una deriva golpista cuyos resultados aún son inciertos. El talón de Aquiles de la mayoría de los políticos de estos tiempos es que viven en una burbuja apartada del mundo de la gente. Cuando reaccionan es demasiado tarde. La clase media se ha lanzado. Las multitudes se han volcado a la calle y quieren cambiar al mundo en un día. Cuando esto ocurre a los operadores políticos no les queda más que tirar la toalla o sacar las armas de la república para aplacar la ira de los ciudadanos.

En sus memorias, Eduardo Carrasco Pirard, fundador y director de la agrupación Quilapayún recuerda sus conversaciones con Pablo Neruda en la residencia de Isla Negra. El músico comunista escuchaba en la voz del Nobel de literatura comunista el fragmento poético locos y locuelos. Los comecandelas de la extrema derecha que se aprovechan de los comecandelas de la extrema izquierda. El autor del álbum El pueblo unido jamás será vencido, escribe en sus memorias sobre la errada creencia de que la Revolución consiste en una mera transformación económica. La clase media, Viejo Topo, lo está acreditando en Latinoamérica. Toma nota para la huelga del 21-N.

*Escritor y analista político

Blog: En el puente: a las seis es la cita

 

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