El Estatuto de ciudadanía juvenil

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Marcha juveil en Barranquilla. Foto archivo.

Juan Valbuena
@juanval120 

El primero de marzo pasado fue sancionada la Ley 1885 de 2018 que modifica parcialmente la Ley 1622 de 2013 (Estatuto de ciudadanía juvenil). Aquí, un resumen de los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta de esta ley, explicando en qué consistió la transformación normativa y comentando brevemente cada punto.

Relación Consejo – Plataforma

Tal como está diseñada la ley, las plataformas son espacios mucho más participativos y deliberativos desde las expresiones juveniles, mientras que los consejos son espacios representativos, elegidos por voto popular y que cumplen un papel de interlocución a nombre de la juventud ante las instancias gubernamentales.

En el anterior diseño era función de los consejos locales convocar y reglamentar las plataformas de juventud. Ahora, las plataformas serán convocadas por la instancia encargada de juventud en cada ente territorial, lo cual es un problema porque en muchas entidades territoriales no existe esta dependencia y en otras, como en el caso de Bogotá, hay una dispersión funcional que no deja claro quién debe encargarse de juventud.

Cambios con respecto a los consejos de juventud

Se reglamenta una “circunscripción especial” para hacer parte de los consejos de juventud: ser joven víctima, la reglamentación consiste en que este joven debe 1) cumplir con los criterios de edad de la ley (entre 14 y 28 años) y 2) estar inscrito en el Registro Único de Víctimas previsto por la Ley 1448 de 2011.

Esto realmente representa una limitación, pues según organizaciones de víctimas y defensoras de derechos humanos, hay un subregistro de víctimas inscritas de entre el 15% y el 20%, que aumenta en cuanto a la población juvenil: sólo algunos jóvenes desplazados están registrados como víctimas, por lo que, casi ninguno podría postularse a pesar de que buena parte de la población juvenil es víctima directa o indirecta de la confrontación armada.

En cuanto a la inscripción de candidatos se ordena que la misma debe hacerse a partir de listas cerradas en las cuales pueden postularse candidatos de acuerdo con lo que ya estaba previsto en la norma anterior.

Se modifica el número de firmas a recoger para la inscripción de listas independientes, también se aclara la inscripción de candidatos por parte de los procesos y prácticas organizativas de la juventud, que deberán haberse constituido, por lo menos tres meses antes de la convocatoria a la inscripción.

En cuanto a la cuota de género se establece la regla de la “cremallera” lo cual implica que no puede haber dos candidatos del mismo género en orden consecutivo en una misma lista. Esto puede presentar problemas a la hora de la inscripción de las listas o posteriormente en cuanto a qué implica un género distinto.

La asignación de curules se hará dependiendo del número de habitantes en el respectivo municipio o localidad, estas curules se reparten por mecanismo de la cifra repartidora, así: 40% para jóvenes independientes, 30% para procesos y prácticas organizativas de la juventud debidamente acreditadas, y 30% para las juventudes de los partidos políticos.

La organización electoral

Se reglamenta el calendario electoral para la elección de consejos de juventud, en esta norma queda claro que el papel principal en este ejercicio lo tiene la Registraduría. También se agrega un proceso de formación para los candidatos y consejeros elegidos, dirigido por la ESAP.

Los jurados de votación serán nombrados por la Registraduría, por sorteo, de entre los docentes y estudiantes de educación media y superior de la respectiva entidad territorial.

Lo anterior no sólo le asigna un importante rol al movimiento educativo en la salvaguarda de la integridad y transparencia del proceso electoral, sino que le brinda una oportunidad al movimiento estudiantil para socializar y discutir sobre la importancia de este tipo de espacios de deliberación y las puertas que abre para el debate público de la agenda juvenil.

En general, el esquema electoral es casi idéntico al que se usa para elecciones a cuerpos colegiados, por ejemplo, las elecciones parlamentarias.

El censo electoral

Se define (por fin) claramente la forma de establecer el censo electoral para los consejos de juventud: se conformará por quienes se inscriban como votantes ante la Registraduría, esa era la fórmula antigua; lo novedoso consiste en que se establece un método de actualización automática del censo electoral a cargo de la Registraduría, que incluye automáticamente a quienes vayan cumpliendo 14 y 18 años, y excluye a quienes vayan cumpliendo 29.

Un comentario

Esta actualización de la norma sobre la ciudadanía juvenil, si bien trae elementos a rescatar, no soluciona los problemas de fondo del funcionamiento del sistema y las limitaciones a la participación de la juventud en las decisiones que le afectan, en general. Podemos concluir lo siguiente:

Es positivo que se reglamente y se establezcan responsabilidades claras para la convocatoria, elección y conformación de los consejos de juventud, esto sin duda impulsará algunos mecanismos de participación juvenil y, por lo menos, incentivará el debate a su alrededor.

También es positivo que, en el marco de esta convocatoria, se le asignen recursos al mecanismo electoral y algunas garantías de funcionamiento a los consejos de juventud.

Sin embargo, hay una limitación real, económica, para la participación juvenil: este elevado número de representantes juveniles (serían alrededor de 300 sólo en Bogotá sin contar a las plataformas de juventud) deben trabajar y tratar de ejercer esta representación juvenil mientras estudian y/o trabajan, pues no hay ningún emolumento por hacerse representante juvenil ni por participar en los espacios del sistema.

Tampoco soluciona el principal problema de este sistema de participación y es que no es decisorio, el único espacio en el que se pueden tomar decisiones con impacto real en política pública es en las comisiones de concertación y decisión, en las que las decisiones deben tomarse por consenso o por mayoría de dos tercios, por lo cual cualquier gobierno puede dedicarse a bloquear en esta instancia las decisiones del movimiento juvenil y no tomar en cuenta su opinión para la formulación de la política pública de juventud.

Lo fundamental es que el sistema efectivamente funcione pues, independientemente de lo que esté sobre el papel, si las autoridades no toman la decisión de poner el sistema de juventud a funcionar, no habrá posibilidad alguna de participación juvenil. Esto fue lo que pasó luego de la expedición de la Ley 1622 de 2013, nadie convocó a elecciones de los consejos, nadie a las plataformas, nadie respondía por nada, y algunas instancias y plataformas funcionaban más por autogestión y voluntad de sus miembros que por un decidido apoyo del gobierno.

En últimas lo que está en debate es si el Estado se atreve o no a permitir que la democracia opere en la juventud y permitir el desarrollo de la ciudadanía y la participación política desde temprana edad como una forma de ampliar la democracia y superar la violencia como mecanismo de trámite político de las controversias.

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