Erradicadores violentos

67
Campesinos del Catatumbo en la pasada movilización nacional en el año 2013. Foto Notimundo.

Después de llegar a acuerdos entre el Gobierno y campesinos del Catatumbo para la erradicación voluntaria de cultivos de coca, el mismo Gobierno sabotea su propia decisión e ingresa de forma violenta al territorio

Carolina Tejada

El Catatumbo, es una región transfronteriza ubicada en el departamento de Norte de Santander en límites con Venezuela. Un territorio casi desconocido por el país, su existencia y sus complejidades se dieron a conocer gracias al llamado que las comunidades, tanto indígenas como campesinas, hicieran en el marco de un paro agrario en el 2013 que paralizó gran parte del departamento. En dicho paro reclamaban mayores responsabilidades del Estado para con sus habitantes. La pobreza, la miseria, la ausencia de un plan de desarrollo para la región, y la violencia eran el pan de cada día.

Escuadrón de la policía agrede a campesinos en el Catatumbo.

A pesar de que este es un territorio rico en recursos naturales como el petróleo, el carbón y el uranio, y pese a que sus suelos representan una amplia garantía para la producción de agricultura diversificada, los pobladores se han visto en la obligación de sembrar la hoja de coca como mecanismo de sobrevivencia, pues como los mismos campesinos afirman, es mas rentable cultivar una hectárea de mata de coca, que diez de maíz o yuca. No se cuenta con vías de acceso adecuadas para sacar los productos, los altos costos del transporte y los fertilizantes, y las pocas garantías para la comercialización de lo que se produce son la sumatoria de dificultades que han hecho que el campesinado ingrese a amplios cinturones de pobreza, viéndose así en la obligación de la siembra de la coca.

Con los acuerdos de paz de la mesa de La Habana, quienes en esta parte del territorio mantienen este tipo de cultivos, se acogieron al punto cuatro de los acuerdos en los que se habla de la solución al problema de las drogas, y de la necesidad de una sustitución de los cultivos. Valga mencionar que el municipio de Tibú en el Catatumbo, está catalogado estadísticamente como el segundo lugar en donde más se siembra la mata de coca en el país.

La incertidumbre de un gobierno que no cumple

VOZ, dialogó con Juan Carlos Quintero, uno de los líderes campesinos de la región, y contó que en este momento la situación es de total incertidumbre, pues apenas el pasado sábado 9 de setiembre habían firmado un acuerdo municipal de sustitución para todo el municipio de Tibú. Pero, no había pasado un par de semanas cuando el Gobierno nacional, en cabeza del ministro de Defensa anunciaba por los medios nacionales que iniciarían una erradicación de 25 mil hectáreas de cultivos de coca de manera forzada en el Catatumbo.

Esta erradicación forzada, sin respetar lo acordado con el Gobierno regional y las comunidades, es catalogado como irresponsable. Según el líder, el acuerdo “involucra un promedio de 15 mil personas, para un total de seis mil familias, lo firmamos entre el Gobierno, los delegados de las FARC para esta instancia, y las organizaciones sociales y comunales con base social cocalera. Y esto generó una expectativa de nuevo enfoque de tratamiento de los cultivos de coca en la zona. Para nosotros ese acuerdo fue histórico, ya que estamos hablando de sustituir de manera voluntaria el segundo municipio del país con más coca, en este caso el de Tibú”.

Una de las grapas disparadas por el Esmad.

Sin embargo, tres días después a través de los medios de comunicación se anunciaron los incumplimientos por parte del mismo Gobierno. “Eso nos causa un escenario de incertidumbre y lo único que evidencia es una desconfianza entre las partes. Esto trajo consigo que el día martes se hiciera un despliegue militar en la vereda El 30, en el municipio de Sardinata, lo que trajo como respuesta el bloqueo de los campesinos a los erradicadores violentos aquí en la zona y el pronunciamiento por parte del gobernador del departamento en rechazo a esta nueva política de incumplimiento por parte del Gobierno nacional”, relata Quintero.

Conocidas los nuevos incumplimientos y el despliegue militar a la zona, los campesinos iniciaron, de manera organizada, unas jornadas de movilización social y unas respectivas comunicaciones públicas en función de rechazar dichas medidas arbitrarias. “El sábado nosotros informamos de jornadas escalonadas de movilización como la que tenemos en El 30 y el bloqueo temporal que hubo en la carretera que comunica a Cúcuta con Ocaña y Cúcuta con el municipio de Tibú”. Estas acciones se presentan de manera pacífica, pero han sido dispersadas por las acciones violentas del Esmad.

Dispuestos al diálogo, pero sin violencia

“Nosotros estamos dispuestos a llegar a todos los escenarios de diálogo, pero nuestra solicitud inmediata es el retiro de los erradicadores violentos, el retiro del Escuadrón Móvil Anti Disturbios y una sesión del Consejo Permanente de Direccionamiento Estratégico, el próximo miércoles en la ciudad de Cúcuta”.

Mientras tanto, las acciones de movilización continúan, lo cual también ha generado un llamado adicional al Gobierno, y es la brutalidad con la que el escuadrón antimotines ha reaccionado contra la humanidad de los marchantes. En tan solo tres días de movilizaciones, se denuncia la agresión con perdigones a varios campesinos y uno de ellos con un trauma testicular. Los manifestantes también han denunciado que las granadas disparadas por el escuadrón de la policía contienen puntillas y grapas.

Según afirma Juan Carlos Quintero, la movilización se mantendrá hasta que el Gobierno Nacional respete lo acordado en el territorio con las comunidades. “Anunciamos que continúan las movilizaciones escalonadas y el día martes, se reunió el comando de paro en el Catatumbo para definir el carácter de la movilización. Sí continua la actitud intransigente del Gobierno nacional de mantener los erradicadores y el Escuadrón Móvil Antidisturbios en la zona, la movilización social se mantendrá”.

@carolltejada 

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