Entre el campo y el narcotráfico

199
Movilización en Ituango. Foto Cortesía Ascit.

Los pequeños cultivadores de coca hoy se debaten entre la subsistencia, la judicialización y el incumplimiento del Gobierno con lo pactado

Bibiana Ramírez – Agencia Prensa Rural
@bibianarm 

Hace un año se inició el Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos de Uso Ilícito (PNIS) donde el principal propósito del Gobierno es erradicar forzadamente 50 mil hectáreas y sustituir voluntariamente otras 50 mil, en respuesta a la amenaza del presidente de Estados Unidos con descertificar a Colombia como socio de la lucha contra las drogas, lo cual pone en peligro 390 millones de dólares.

Para 2012 el país tenía 48 mil hectáreas de cultivos de coca, en el 2015 tenía 96 mil y en el 2016 llegó a 146 mil. 54 mil familias se unieron al proceso de sustitución voluntaria, habiendo unas 180 mil involucradas con el cultivo. 28.660 familias comenzaron a recibir el primer pago mensual de un millón de pesos durante un año para hacer la transición a proyectos productivos.

Una dificultad que se ha presentado es que en el 70% de las zonas donde se está ejecutando el programa las tierras no están formalizadas. Un análisis de este primer año que hizo la Fundación Ideas para la Paz concluye: “Para que el Ejecutivo se ganara la confianza de estas personas era fundamental la protección de las comunidades y la contención de las amenazas, la generación de ingresos rápidos, las obras de infraestructura social. Elementos que no se han cumplido del todo pero es apresurado decir que el programa haya fracasado cuando se trata de un proyecto que requiere de tiempo y paciencia”.

El panorama de los cocaleros es desolador, pues ese pago mensual alcanza para sobrevivir, mas no para invertir en un proyecto. El Gobierno se comprometía, desde el segundo mes de entregar el pago, a iniciar con la elaboración de proyectos productivos para que las comunidades a un año hubiesen cambiado de actividad. En algunas regiones ya se va a cumplir ese año y no se hay propuestas ni proyectos.

Coccam en asamblea permanente

Ante esta situación, la Coordinadora Nacional de Cultivadores de Coca, Marihuana y Amapola (Coccam) decidió entrar en asamblea permanente el 5 de abril para hacer un recorrido por las comunidades que se acogieron al programa de sustitución y verificar su cumplimiento y la situación de las familias. La Coccam prevé un fracaso del PNIS y ve la posibilidad de retirarse de este por la falta de garantías.

“El campesino no entró al programa para que le den una limosna sino para cambiar de actividad y tener proyectos productivos. Que una vez el campesino firme el acuerdo individual entra la asistencia técnica, pero eso no está pasando. No hay ni un solo proyecto productivo funcionando en el país. A un año de iniciados los pilotos en La Carmelita, San José del Guaviare y Tumaco no hay proyectos. Los campesinos hemos retirado los cultivos dos meses después de firmado el acuerdo y hoy no hay físicamente con qué comer”, dice Luz Perly Córdoba, de la Coccam.

El segundo desembolso se demoró hasta cuatro meses para llegar. En esta etapa los campesinos debían arrancar sus cultivos de coca y la mayoría lo hicieron monitoreados por la ONU, que informó el retiro de 22 mil hectáreas. “La gente se pregunta: voy a retirar las matas, me dan una asistencia alimentaria de un año, pero después ¿de qué voy a vivir? No hay vías, vivimos en el lugar más retirado. A eso no se le ha querido atender de ninguna manera”, agrega Luz Perly.

Ya el Gobierno anunció que se cerraron las inscripciones al PNIS y argumenta que el dinero se acabó para continuar con proyectos de sustitución y está usando todas sus fuerzas para la erradicación forzada. Más de la mitad quedaría por fuera del programa, sin posibilidad de una vida digna.

“Si se mantiene la erradicación vamos a tener nuevamente los escenarios que existían antes del programa de sustitución. En Córdoba, Antioquia, Catatumbo, Tumaco, se evitaban erradicaciones pero va a estar la vida del campesino enfrentándose a la Fuerza Pública y sabemos cuáles son esas consecuencias”, dice Arnobis Zapata, coordinador de la Asociación Nacional de Zonas de Reserva Campesina en el noroccidente colombiano.

Judicializar a quien no corresponde

Y el tema que más preocupa a los campesinos es el proyecto de ley por el cual se desarrollaría el tratamiento penal diferencial para pequeños cultivadores de coca. Las personas que cultiven más de 1,78 hectáreas no se podrán beneficiar del programa de sustitución y serán judicializados. Al inicio del proyecto de ley el Gobierno había hablado de 3,8 hectáreas.

“Un campesino con 1,78 hectáreas no sobrevive. Los recolectores también serían judicializados. Con ese proyecto de ley se aumenta la represión para el campesino. Esto va a llevar al fracaso el punto 4 del Acuerdo de Paz”, asegura Arnobis Zapata.

Empiezan las protestas

En el corregimiento de El Aro, Ituango, al norte de Antioquia, llegó un grupo del Ejército a erradicar cultivos en veredas donde la mayoría se había acogido a los acuerdos colectivos de sustitución voluntaria. Después de ocho días de estarse enfrentando con la Fuerza Pública, los campesinos decidieron salir a paro al casco urbano. Desde el 2 de abril llevan concentrados en el coliseo alrededor de 700 personas. Han hecho presión bloqueando las vías y cerrando el comercio, por lo que fue necesaria una reunión el 9 de abril con la Administración municipal, delegados de la Gobernación de Antioquia, del Gobierno nacional, FARC, ONU, OEA y comunidades.

“En este momento en El Aro hay unas 700 familias que viven netamente del cultivo de coca y puede haber unas 300 hectáreas sembradas. Todos quisieron cambiar por otro proyecto y firmaron el acuerdo colectivo, pero vemos que hay engaño”, dice Marcos Suárez, líder de la Asociación de Campesinos de Ituango.

“Los campesinos no se van a dejar erradicar sin entrar al programa de sustitución. En Ituango hay acuerdos colectivos. Hay tres grupos armados que impiden que los campesinos sustituyan. No es problema de los campesinos, es del Gobierno”, asegura Arnobis Zapata.

Y también preocupan los 31 líderes asesinados que estaban impulsando la sustitución voluntaria, frente a lo que la institucionalidad afirma que son casos aislados. Hay comunidades enteras amenazadas, y con más problemas de los que tenían, es decir que el Gobierno no fue capaz de entrar ni atender los territorios más necesitados.

Todo esto en últimas termina favoreciendo al narcotráfico, se le cierran las posibilidades al campesino y se le señala como el criminal cuando apenas está buscando el sustento de su familia. Seguir erradicando o volver a la fumigación, como plantean algunos, es un retroceso que le costará caro a Colombia.

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