El engaño de la perestroika

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El imponente Palacio de los Congresos en el Kremlin fue el escenario del XXVII Congreso del PCUS.

El XXVII Congreso del PCUS, el penúltimo, fue un hecho histórico, porque planteó la renovación del socialismo y esa ilusión quedó en sus participantes

Carlos A. Lozano Guillén
@carloslozanogui 

EL XXVII Congreso del Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética (PCUS), penúltimo en su historia, se realizó en Moscú, del 25 de febrero al 6 de marzo de 1986. Fue un evento histórico que concentró la atención de las repúblicas soviéticas, de los países socialistas, los partidos comunistas y obreros en el planeta, partidos de distintas ideologías tanto de derechas como de izquierdas y de los gobiernos de todo el mundo.

Fue un gran acontecimiento de política exterior, seguido con interés en todas las latitudes. La dirección del PCUS divulgó las tesis, sustentadas en dos principios nuevos y renovadores: la perestroika (reestructuración) y el glasnost (transparencia), como bases de la nueva política para fortalecer el socialismo desarrollado. Nadie se imaginó, entonces, que “esa nueva política”, adelantada por Mijail Gorbachov y la mayoría de los dirigentes del PCUS, conduciría a la liquidación de la URSS y al derrumbe del llamado socialismo real. Fue un acto de traición al socialismo y a los principios leninistas de la Revolución de Octubre.

Hoy no cabe la menor duda de la injerencia del papa polaco Juan Pablo II, de Ronald Reagan, presidente de Estados Unidos, de la derecha mundial y de algunos sectores de la socialdemocracia europea, para que este desastre y revés del mundo comunista y de la clase obrera internacional, tuviera éxito. Todavía resuenan en nuestros oídos la frase lapidaria de Jacobo Arenas, antes del derrumbe del muro de Berlín: “Gorbachov es un agente de la CIA”. Algunos pensaron que era exagerada, otros, con el tiempo, le dieron la razón.

Rumbo a Moscú

Unos días antes de la apertura del Congreso, Gilberto Vieira y el autor de esta crónica, viajaron como delegados del Partido Comunista Colombiano. El primero en su calidad de Secretario General y el segundo, entonces un joven integrante del Comité Central, recién llegado de las filas de la JUCO. Un reconocimiento que me llenó de orgullo y me dio la oportunidad de vivir este gran acontecimiento de mi vida revolucionaria y comunista. Asumí con satisfacción la tarea de acompañar al camarada Vieira, quien había asistido a numerosos congresos del PCUS en su vida de dirigente y militante ejemplar. “Carlos: este Congreso es histórico, podría equipararse al XX Congreso que fue el de la crítica al estalinismo, por eso tenemos que analizar a diario cada informe, cada debate, cada palabra”, me dijo durante el largo viaje hasta Moscú, cuando comenzaba a pasar el invierno aun con temperaturas de menos diez grados centígrados o más. Reflexionó, apoyado en su conocimiento de la historia del PCUS: “Del resultado de este Congreso, dependerá el rumbo del socialismo; eso si se preserva el marxismo-leninismo”.

Viajamos vía Lima, en Aeroflot, en un viaje de un día de duración, incluyendo dos escalas técnicas, aunque en esta ocasión, nos detuvimos casi 24 horas en La Habana, porque el camarada Vieira quería conocer detalles del reciente Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba, en diciembre de 1985, en el que no pudo estar por tareas políticas en Colombia. La conversación con el comandante Fidel Castro fue corta, situación inusual, pero estaba “en carreras” porque también viajaba a Moscú. Sus opiniones sobre Gorbachov y la perestroika fueron superficiales, no reveló inquietud alguna. Tampoco demasiada emoción. Su insistencia fue en que se le explicara la situación colombiana y sobre los diálogos de paz.

En el XXVII Congreso

Seguimos el viaje a Moscú y en el trayecto conversamos con el camarada Gilberto sobre distintos temas, escuchando su dialéctica y sus anécdotas históricas en respuesta a tantas preguntas que le formulé, así la larga jornada fue más agradable. Hablamos de la Unión Patriótica con la esperanza de su enorme perspectiva, aún no había la señal de lo que sería el martirologio de sus dirigentes y militantes, pero se fortalecía el paramilitarismo agresivo.

A Moscú llegamos al medio día del 3 de marzo de 1986. En el aeropuerto, agitado por la recepción de los delegados internacionales que representaban más de cien organizaciones, incluyendo partidos comunistas y obreros, revolucionarios y movimientos de liberación nacional y algunos socialdemócratas. Nos esperaban el responsable de Colombia en el Departamento Internacional y a nombre del Comité Central del PCUS el escritor e historiador Alexandr Chakovski, autor de una obra fenomenal que lleva por nombre “El Bloqueo” y que es la crónica del asedio nazi de 900 días a Leningrado en la Segunda Guerra Mundial y de ejemplares lecciones y enseñanzas de la gran guerra patria a la luz del marxismo y del materialismo histórico en particular. Aun reposan en mi biblioteca tres tomos de “El Bloqueo” en español que me obsequió el escritor.

Comenzó el Congreso con la lectura de los informes en los cuales se aseguraba que los cambios anunciados eran para fortalecer el socialismo, abrir el camino a la democracia revolucionaria y a la renovación. Gorbachov llamó a los “caballeros de la inercia” a reconocer que los cambios eran en dirección del leninismo y que el gran conductor de la revolución bolchevique siempre abogó por la estrecha relación entre democracia y socialismo. No dejó brecha entre perestroika, glasnost y socialismo. “Aires de renovación y una fuerte inyección de espíritu leninista, de optimismo, de entusiasmo y esperanzas flotan en el ambiente de este XXVII Congreso”, diría el comandante Fidel Castro desde la tribuna en el Palacio de los Congresos del Kremlin en pleno corazón de Moscú.

El brindis de la amistad

Los cambios económicos los explicaron desde la misma perspectiva. Contabilidad de costos, eliminar el paternalismo, organizar mejor la sociedad, combatir el acomodamiento y el burocratismo, todo era explicado a la luz de los principios de la revolución. Boris Yeltsin, Secretario General del PCUS en Moscú y miembro del Buró Político, nos atendió en una reunión bilateral en el Palacio de las Columnas, donde el camarada Vieira le hizo varias preguntas. Fue muy cordial y hasta cariñoso. “No se preocupen, la URSS no se apartará del camino del socialismo ni dejará de cumplir con sus obligaciones comunistas e internacionalistas”, nos advirtió. Algo que nos llamó la atención, porque no fue una aclaración solicitada, ni siquiera insinuada. Terminamos con unos brindis a la eterna amistad entre los dos partidos hermanos.

Todas las noches nos reuníamos con el camarada Gilberto a intercambiar opiniones sobre la sesión del día. Aquella noche ambos expresamos nuestra sorpresa por aquella explicación no solicitada, pero sin sospechar nada turbio o la traición futura. Por nuestra cabeza no pasó ni la más remota duda de que Yeltsin era un traidor en potencia, que años después encabezaría la disolución soviética, el ataque a la sede del PCUS y la persecución a los dirigentes comunistas que se oponían a la liquidación del socialismo.

Bandera de lucha

Las deliberaciones y las conclusiones estuvieron rebosantes de socialismo, así lo comentamos con el comandante Fidel y varios dirigentes comunistas latinoamericanos, salvo los argentinos que en voz baja expresaban algunas dudas.

El comandante Fidel Castro dijo en su discurso que “estas ideas sobre las que ha puesto en los últimos tiempos enorme énfasis el glorioso Partido Comunista de la Unión Soviética, constituyen hoy una bandera de lucha para toda la comunidad socialista, y contará sin duda con el máximo apoyo de todas las fuerzas progresistas de la Tierra”; todos lo aplaudimos porque en el momento las creíamos justas y de absoluta verdad. Así lo habíamos conversado con dirigentes y delegados en el Congreso. Pero la historia y la realidad fue otra. Se abrió pasó la traición.

Retornamos a Colombia impresionados y queríamos traer la perestroika y el glasnost a la realidad colombiana. Hubo cambios en los estatutos y la formulación del nuevo concepto de partido, que no aguantaron la prueba del tiempo ni de los principios comunistas que prevalecieron en el seno del partido. Los hechos demostraron lo contrario. A la postre el socialismo real quedó echo añicos, significó una derrota para el mundo progresista, pero el proyecto socialista revolucionario y la causa del comunismo, quedaron vigentes, vivitos y coleando. La historia condenó a los traidores, la lucha continuó sobre nuevas lecciones, enseñanzas y realidades.

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