Enfrentados dos poderes que cohabitan en la ciudad

207
Paisaje urbano de las comunas de la capital antioqueña.

Comuna 13 de Medellín. En los análisis que se hacen del conflicto urbano, no se tiene en la cuenta que también están confrontados dos modelos económicos, que cohabitan en la ciudad, el de la economía tradicional y el de la economía emergente

Gonzalo Álvarez Henao*
@gonzaloalvarezh 

El plato está servido y el debate sobre la violencia urbana en Medellín está sobre la mesa, al rojo vivo, y no es para menos. Por la experiencia y el conocimiento que tengo de la ciudad, me atrevo a opinar en torno a este asunto tan complejo y de tan difícil solución, con alguna tranquilidad. No es la primera vez que opino sobre este espinoso y delicado asunto.

Esta vez quiero decir que se equivocan en su diagnóstico los que nos quieren vender como receta la fórmula empleada en la década de los 80 para superar el conflicto, porque la de hoy no es comparable con la que vivimos en esa época, sin embargo los métodos que se están utilizando para combatirla son los mismos, y ya la historia se encargó de demostrar y corroborar que son ineficaces y deficientes. En este breve escrito, intento explicar la diferencia que existe: en los años 80 la violencia se asociaba con el narcotráfico y más concretamente con Pablo Escobar y la delincuencia común.

Hoy Pablo Escobar no se encuentra entre nosotros, y tampoco la delincuencia común que conocimos en los años 80. Razón suficiente para decir que el tratamiento que se le tiene que dar al asunto, es completamente diferente. Mientras las distintas autoridades tengan como estrategia perseguir a la delincuencia común, van a fracasar en su intento. En los años 80 se hablaba de raponeros, cosquilleros y atracadores. Muchos de ellos funcionaban individualmente, esto es, de manera aislada. Esta delincuencia sufrió una metamorfosis, y de delincuentes aislados, pasaron a constituirse en bandas, y hoy se les califica de combos o estructuras armadas, que además cuentan con armamento propio y pesado.

Mutaciones

El fortalecimiento de las organizaciones delincuenciales que hoy trabajan bajo el control de los paramilitares, se originó a partir de la alcaldía de Juan Gómez Martínez. Periodo en el cual, se les propuso a los muchachos integrantes de las todavía incipientes bandas, que dejaran las armas a cambio de estudio y la implementación de proyectos económicos en sus zonas de residencia, entre los que se contaban las panaderías.

Gómez Martínez, no tuvo en la cuenta para nada el dicho popular que dice que ‘vaca ladrona no olvida el portillo’. Los que habían entregado las viejas armas, rápidamente, las reemplazaron por artefactos nuevos, comprados con dinero oficial y en los locales, no solo se procesaba el pan, sino que también se ocupaban como bodegas, para guardar objetos robados. Algunos de estos espacios, fueron más tarde allanados por las autoridades.

La confrontación armada en Medellín, a juzgar por los resultados obtenidos, no parece tener una solución policial, puesto que tiene un fuerte componente económico político, y trasciende la comuna 13, que es en donde hoy están midiendo el pulso los dos poderes que cohabitan en la ciudad. Por un lado el alcalde respalda a los dueños de buses que manifiestan no poder pagar un tributo tan alto como el que les ha fijado el poder real que controla las comunas 12 y 13 y les ofrece seguridad.

Paramilitarismo, un proyecto nacional

El otro poder que impone su ley a sangre y fuego, les dice que si no pagan no pueden trabajar. Los platos rotos de esta confrontación, la están pagando con su vida los conductores de buses. En menos de 15 días se han presentado varios ataques contra estos, con un saldo de dos muertos.

¿Por qué este grave problema en vez de resolverse se incrementa? Muy sencillo, porque el paramilitarismo también sufrió su metamorfosis, y de un proyecto que se presentaba como contrainsurgente, que resultó estrechamente ligado con el narcotráfico, después de la supuesta desmovilización, pasó a ser un proyecto político, económico y militar con cobertura nacional y con vocación de poder. Dominio que de manera directa o indirecta, ejercen en el orden territorial.

Economía emergente

En Medellín se ve más claro que en cualquiera otra región del país la confrontación de los dos poderes que están funcionando en una misma unidad geográfica. La preocupación de algunas autoridades, no radica propiamente en la inseguridad ciudadana, sino en cómo salvaguardar los intereses de sus patrocinadores electorales. En los respectivos análisis que se hacen del conflicto urbano, no se tiene en cuenta que también están confrontados los dos modelos económicos, que cohabitan en la ciudad. El de la economía tradicional y el de la economía emergente.

El paramilitarismo en Medellín, no es solo narcotráfico, cobro de tributo o extorsiones, como lo califican las autoridades, sino un próspero emporio económico con mucha influencia política y un poder corruptor descomunal, que está poniendo en jaque a los empresarios vinculados a la industria. Hay que decir que algunos empresarios, también tuvieron una mutación y pasaron a ser importadores de mercancías o contrabandistas con vínculo con el narcotráfico. En este reglón de la economía, o sea, en el renglón de las importaciones, la voz cantante la tiene el dinero del narcotráfico.

* Exconcejal de Medellín.

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