Energías limpias o desastres irremediables

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¡Sin agua no hay vida! Ya no es una consigna elaborada por las comunidades víctimas de la política pública de extracción minera en los últimos tres gobiernos del país. Lo vivido por estos días con el desastre ambiental del pozo de petróleo La Lizama, en La Fortuna, Santander, es muestra palpable de la irresponsabilidad de esa política para con el ambiente, la fauna, la flora y la vida de los colombianos y colombianas.

Ya vamos para treinta y cinco días del derrame ambiental, por lo menos 25 mil barriles de petróleo del pozo 158 de La Lizama, penetraron las fuentes hídricas de la zona, afectando las especies vivas de los afluentes y los suelos. Los diagnósticos sobre las causas que originaron la explosión del pozo, aún están en reserva, como también lo están las responsabilidades políticas de la tragedia, que en cualquier país decente del mundo, ya se hubieran exigido las renuncias de la cúpula minera, desde el ministro hasta el presidente de Ecopetrol, pero como estamos donde estamos, los que hoy fungen como ministros o directores, mañana serán gerentes de las multinacionales mineras con asiento en el país.

Tampoco existen responsabilidades de quienes entregaron las licencias de exploración y explotación a multinacionales que han venido extrayendo la riqueza del subsuelo a costa del más alto daño ambiental y de salud a las poblaciones, dejándonos los huecos en la tierra, agotando las fuentes de agua y miseria a su paso.

En un fallo histórico, el pasado mes de marzo, la Corte Constitucional puso en evidencia a la multinacional Cerro Matoso S.A por los daños causados en la explotación del carbón a las comunidades del Torno Rojo, Bocas de Uré, Puerto Colombia, Unión Matoso en Puerto Flecha, Guacarí, en La Odisea; Centro América y Puente Uré y al Consejo Comunitario de Comunidades Negras de San José de Uré en el departamento de Córdoba.

El alto tribunal constitucional señaló que la exposición del níquel, que extrae esa multinacional, causó daños importantes en la salud de las personas, de la fauna y la flora de la región y la seguridad alimentaria desde hace más de tres décadas. Ante el fallo no se han pronunciado las autoridades ambientales, ni los ministros de ese sector ni los de Minas de los gobiernos recientes, que nunca quisieron prever los daños causados por la “seguridad inversionista” o la “locomotora minera”. Son una vergüenza.

Difícilmente vemos en el mundo la tragedia ambiental producida por la minería como en Colombia. No hay departamento en donde las luchas por la soberanía del territorio y la defensa de la vida alrededor del agua, no estén a la orden del día. Lo demanda el mundo y se materializa en el país con las consultas mineras locales en donde las comunidades, dueñas del suelo, deciden sobre la explotación de su territorio. El preciado líquido se convierte entonces en un recurso tan sagrado para las comunidades que han preferido rechazar las limosnas de la minería de hoy, previendo el hambre del mañana.

Pero más allá de los sobre diagnósticos al medio ambiente, el asunto de fondo es el cambio de política pública extractiva. La adaptación al cambio climático es una necesidad urgente para salvar la vida de las personas, las especies animales y la biodiversidad del país. Hoy estamos a tiempo de emprender un cambio progresivo a la producción de energías limpias.

Nos jugamos en las próximas elecciones dos modelos de desarrollo económico, el sustentado por el extractivismo desaforado, auspiciado por la derecha colombiana que en eso no diferencia a Santos de Uribe; o un modelo de desarrollo sostenible con el medio ambiente que vire su accionar a los renglones de la economía debilitados por la renta parasitaria del petróleo, la industria y el agro. Es decir, el modelo de la muerte defendido hoy por Iván Duque y Germán Vargas. O el modelo de la vida humana defendido por las fuerzas del progresismo, las fuerzas revolucionarias y sobre todo, las comunidades en sus territorios, enfocadas en energías amables con el planeta.

Estamos hablando de la necesidad de reformular la política de protección de los ecosistemas vivos, de transformar el desarrollo económico del país con la correcta utilización y preservación del agua, entre otras, para producir alimentos; adaptar las ciudades al cambio climático mitigando sus efectos. Las tragedias ambientales que se avecinan tendrán desenlaces fatales en millones de vidas que se pueden salvar tomando medidas ya.

La realidad del cambio climático avanza a pasos agigantados y asimismo, sus consecuencias. La minería irresponsable no puede ir más, y si el costo de tales decisiones es revocar las concesiones mineras ya adjudicadas y detener las que van en proceso, será el menor daño ante el desastre ambiental que se avecina, de continuar siendo Colombia el paraíso minero de las multinacionales.

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