El paraíso fiscal

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Alberto Carrasquilla, ministro de Hacienda.

Hernán Camacho
@camachohernan 

Pocas veces la oposición en Colombia logra desde el Congreso influir en la política económica, y menos cuando su contradictor natural es Alberto Carrasquilla. Las discusiones de la ley de financiamiento a finales del pasado año permitieron que estas fuerzas presentarán una alternativa para recaudar 24 billones de pesos vía impuestos.

El Gobierno Duque rechazó la propuesta y con el apoyo de sus mayorías, el 28 de diciembre sancionaron la ley de financiamiento que recaudará siete billones de pesos; sin embargo, por vía de nuevas exenciones el país dejará de tener ingresos por siete billones. Mal negocio de Duque.

La oposición históricamente ausente de las comisiones económicas, entre el vaivén de discursos, lograron introducir un artículo que obligaba al Ejecutivo a crear una comisión de expertos que, en un año a partir de la sanción de la ley, revisará las exenciones tributarias que hoy gozan las multinacionales del petróleo y otros sectores de la economía. Por fin los colombianos sabríamos la forma en que evaden impuestos las multinacionales.

La Occidental de Colombia, empresa de capital gringo, una de las cinco más grandes explotadoras de crudo del país, tiene a cargo los pozos de Caño Limón en Arauquita, pagándole al municipio la ridícula suma de 500 mil pesos por concepto de impuesto predial. Esa es tan solo una de las 234 gabelas tributarias a que esa multinacional tiene derecho desde que se transformó regresivamente la política petrolera colombiana en los gobiernos de Pastrana, Uribe, Santos y Duque. Regalar los pozos, recibir las migajas por el crudo y cada año ver reducidos los ingresos de la Nación.

En el año 2010 las multinacionales pagaban por tasa nominal 10.9%, hoy las empresas del sector hidrocarburos pagan 1.5%, cuando en otros países como Chile el impuesto es del 23%. Colombia ha dejado de recibir más de 100 billones de pesos por concepto de exenciones de impuestos. La panadería de cualquier barrio popular de Bogotá paga hoy, proporcionalmente, más impuestos que la multinacional del petróleo Occidental. El paraíso para cualquier multinacional.

Entonces, bien que se revise y se corrijan los regalos que afectan las finanzas públicas. Sin embargo, se prendieron las alarmas y la última semana de las discusiones del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo, PND, en los oscuros pasillos del Ministerio, el Gobierno decidió derogar el artículo 110 de la ley de financiamiento: la comisión de revisión tributaria.

La orden de bajar el artículo fue del Consejo Nacional Gremial, los mismos que definieron la reforma pensional para salvaguardar los fondos privados de pensiones y lesionar Colpensiones. Es vergonzosa la manera como conducen el país, gobiernan para los ricos, facilitan la evasión de impuestos mientras les piden a los colombianos apretarse el cinturón. La derecha es mezquina con el desarrollo social.

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