El desempleo: ¿Trabajar para qué?

158
Trabajadores de Ecopetrol en manifestación.

Nelson Fajardo

La mayoría de la población en edad de trabajar, en Colombia es de 25’000.000 de operarios, sobre una población total de 44’000.000 de habitantes. Es decir, somos un país de tamaño medio que no alcanza a cubrir los requisitos de “un país continente”, pero se acerca al mismo. Ahora bien, según Eduardo Lora, existen  en el país 10 ocupaciones mejor pagas; y ellas son: directores financieros, directores y gerentes de servicios profesionales, directores de explotaciones mineras, directores de administración y servicios, gerentes de servicios, directores de tecnología de información y comunicación; desarrolladores y analistas de software y multimedia, programadores de aplicaciones, desarrolladores web y multimedia y médicos generales; todos ellos oscilan  entre $ 5.000.000 y $ 3.500.000 en salarios mensuales. Como se puede observar, el concepto de proletarización viene asumiendo verdaderamente los requisitos exigidos por Carlos Marx, para ser calificado así: tener fuerza de trabajo libre y vendible en cualquier parte del mundo; ser vendedor de su propia fuerza de trabajo y ser libre jurídicamente.

Si bien los sectores mencionados tienen las tres características mencionadas; también es cierto que poseen una cultura política basada en la prebenda, el compadrazgo y la servidumbre; pues muchos de ellos practican la politiquería, confundiéndola con la política. Estos sectores sociales no alcanzan la canasta familiar.

Calculada en el salario máximo posible en 4’000.000 de pesos. En términos del salario nominal, para estos sectores, son extremamente bajos con  $1.044.000 mensuales, mientras que México maneja, en promedio, US$ 507 mensuales o 1.495.650 mensuales; y en Chile US$ 677 o 2.000.535 pesos chilenos. Es decir que son $ 452 pesos colombianos de más en el salario mexicano y son $ 957, que son producto de una conciencia política pequeñoburguesa bastante profunda, tanto por su procedencia campesina (propietarios de medios de producción), como por el estado de su conciencia política o eminentemente politiquera, llena de regalos y promesas. Esto ha permitido fortalecer el paramilitarismo y los aparatos militares y de seguridad del Estado. Ahora bien, muchos de los trabajadores del sector mencionado, no actúan como paramilitares; tarea que se entrega a los sectores más atrasados del campo y la ciudad. Pero los de la ciudad contribuyen a organizar las hordas fascistas.

Por nuestra parte, hemos planteado que después de 1825, las crisis económicas dejaron de ser actos espontáneos del capitalismo contemporáneo, para convertirse en una enfermedad crónica del capitalismo. En efecto, entre 1825 y 1873, las crisis se daban de manera espontánea y asimétrica en el ocaso del capitalismo de la libre competencia. Después de 1873, transitamos al monopolio y a la competencia monopólica; también conocida como la época de la dictadura de los precios de monopolio. Es una época que va de 1874 (derrota de la Comuna de Paris) hasta 1917 (Triunfo de la Revolución Socialista de Octubre en Rusia y final de la Primera Guerra Mundial). Son dos momentos muy cruciales; el primero, con la derrota de la Comuna de París, y, el segundo con la derrota del imperialismo alemán en la Segunda Guerra Mundial (1941 a 1945).

Hacemos esta narración no solo con el propósito de recordar la historia, asunto bastante necesario, sino para recordar que el capitalismo no se mueve hoy de manera tan espontánea, pero requiere fortalecer la planificación, así sea en el marco de la empresa en sus relaciones internas; lo demás es anarquía en la competencia externa entre los monopolios.

En esta dirección, la competencia y la dictadura de los precios es más tenaz y aguda. Por ejemplo, ¿qué explica el desplome de los precios del barril de petróleo, al pasar de US$ 120 dólares el barril a 54 dólares en febrero de 2018?

Lo primero que tenemos que afirmar es que estamos frente a un escenario de guerra, que van ganando los Estados Unidos de América a los países árabes y a Venezuela. Bajo estas condiciones de confrontación, la potencia imperialista viene aplicando el antiguo bloqueo que se practica desde la época de la Comuna de París, y, pasando recientemente por Cuba Socialista, que ha tenido que soportar más de cincuenta años, lo mismo que vive Venezuela en la actualidad. Recordemos que la baja de los precios del petróleo significó la pérdida de trabajo a miles de trabajadores del país hermano, y, que nosotros vamos por cerca de los 5.000 desempleados, como parte del 8,5% del desempleo total; es decir, 2.700.000, que corresponden a una buena porción de colombianos. Seguramente, no faltará quien afirme lo bajo del monto de los colombianos desempleados, lo cual es falso, pues dentro de los 2,700.000 la franja de profesionales y técnicos desempleados o desocupados cubriendo otros trabajos no afines a su formación está creciendo aceleradamente. La muestra de ello fue el paro sindical de los pilotos de Avianca. Hacia ellos, directivos sindicales debemos volcar nuestras acciones y luchas, si queremos recuperar el prestigio de la organización sindical.

Ya en su momento planteamos: “El futuro de las luchas del proletariado hay que verlo en conexión con su capacidad de desdoblamiento para articular sus luchas con aquellas que no atañen directamente a las relaciones entre el capital y el trabajo. Es unir y fortalecer el torrente de las luchas de los explotados, son las luchas de los movimientos y organizaciones alternativas, que conflictúan con otros aspectos negativos de la sociedad capitalista, entre ellos la opresión, la subordinación, la exclusión y la cooptación, la discriminación, la represión, entre otros conceptos ligados al tratamiento de la subjetividad”1

1 Departamento Ideológico del PCC: Problemas Contemporáneos del Movimiento Sindical Colombiano en Puntos de Vista No 6, Páginas 21 a 41.

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