Un ejército paneuropeo de Defensa: ¿Realidad o utopía?

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Angela Merkel y Emmanuel Macron defi enden la idea de un ejército regional europeo, paralelo a la OTAN y sin la presencia de Estados Unidos.

Ricardo Arenales

Menos de dos semanas antes de celebrarse en Buenos Aires la Cumbre del G20, y cuando Europa conmemoraba el primer centenario de la finalización de la Primera Guerra Mundial, el presidente de Francia, Emmanuel Macron lanzó la propuesta de la conformación de un ejército europeo de Defensa, diferente a la OTAN y sin la participación de Estados Unidos.

Como era de esperarse, una iniciativa semejante causó revuelo en los círculos políticos del viejo continente, y la ira del presidente de los Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, que se despachó con una andanada de tuits contra el gobernante francés, y de muy mal gusto le recordó que fueron las tropas americanas las que “salvaron” al pueblo francés durante la primera y segunda guerra mundiales, y que las naciones europeas deberían ajustar sus gastos de defensa, y aportar más dinero a la OTAN antes que pensar en un ejército paneuropeo diferente a las fuerzas ya existentes.

Inmediatamente se divulgó la noticia, la canciller federal alemana, Angela Merkel, expresó públicamente su apoyo a la propuesta de Macron. En declaraciones anteriores, los dos gobernantes han coincidido en señalar que Estados Unidos, bajo la actual administración, ya no es un socio confiable para la comunidad europea.

Estructura burocrática

El anuncio de Macron, en realidad es el relanzamiento de la propuesta de un ejército regional. Otros líderes de esa región del plantea, habían considerado la idea. En 1954, el pensamiento paneuropeísta intentó crear la Comunidad Europea de Defensa. En Maastricht, en 1993, se puso en marcha la Política Exterior y de Seguridad Común, PESC, y desde entonces se han venido dando pasos en un proceso de integración transnacional, en el ámbito de la seguridad y defensa. De hecho se crearon algunos órganos de planificación y dirección en esta línea: El Estado Mayor, el Comité Militar y el Comité Político y de Seguridad, junto a la Agencia Europea de Defensa. En el año 2016 se hizo la propuesta de una autonomía estratégica, que se recoge en el documento Estrategia Global de la Unión Europea.

Aun así, crear un ejército europeo necesita superar muchos obstáculos, antes de convertirse en una realidad. En este momento ni siquiera existe la voluntad de unión política y económica para afianzar el proyecto de la Unión Europea. La definitiva aprobación del brexit, el alto costo impuesto a algunos países de la eurozona por parte de la denominada troika, para superar la crisis financiera, la ofensiva nacionalista y neofascista, la franca oposición de Polonia a un ejército regional, son entre otros, factores que alejan la estabilidad que el bloque requiere para impulsar una idea de esta naturaleza.

¿Ejército de ocupación?

El bloque regional tiene profundas diferencias frente a la nefasta política de aislamiento e imposición de sanciones a Rusia y a Irán. No hay por consiguiente un gobierno verdaderamente común a nivel regional, al que se pueda subordinar un ejército común. Ni el Consejo Europeo, ni la Comisión Europea están en condiciones de asumir ese liderazgo. Pero ni siquiera está clara la idea de ¿un ejército para qué? Y mejor aún, ¿cuál va a ser su teatro de operaciones? ¿Realmente un ejército de defensa o un ejército de ocupación?

En esto tampoco hay unanimidad. Algunos piensan que una fuerza semejante debe intervenir en África, seguramente en favor de los intereses de las empresas trasnacionales de capital europeo. Otros piensan que debe ser una fuerza letal para actuar contra Rusia, y eventualmente contra China. En este caso, se trataría seguramente de una OTAN paralela, sin Estados Unidos, pero con el mismo carácter agresivo e intervencionista.

Venta de armas

No hay que olvidar que de los 29 países miembros de la OTAN, 22 lo son también de la Unión Europea. Entonces las motivaciones de un ejército paneuropeo, hay que buscarlas en otros eventos, no mencionados por Macron ni por Merkel. Por ejemplo, en la política proteccionista y antiglobalizadora de la actual administración de la Casa Blanca, que provoca desencuentros con los gobernantes del viejo continente.

Para el analista Jean-Claude Diderau, cuando la canciller alemana Angela Merkel habla de que la existencia de un poderoso ejército regional, que envíe al mundo el mensaje de que nunca más habrá una guerra entre países europeos, se está enviando también un mensaje a la industria europea de armamentos, en estos momentos de capa caída por la obligación de los socios de la OTAN de comprar armas al complejo militar industrial norteamericano.

Merkel dijo que Europa debería desarrollar su propia política común de exportación de armamentos. De ser así, la propuesta obedecería no tanto a la necesidad de una estrategia de defensa común, como a una guerra interimperialista entre productores de armas, alimentada por la guerra comercial desatada por Trump y su anuncio reciente de que se retira del tratado de armas nucleares de rango medio celebrado con Rusia, paso que ya había dado con Irán al renunciar a un acuerdo de colaboración nuclear, firmado por Washington y varias potencias occidentales.

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