Dos décadas de lápices en las calles

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Teoría & Praxis

“Quiero estudiar para cambiar la sociedad” la consigna estudiantil que se ha escuchado en las calles las últimas décadas

El historiador y sociólogo Sebastian Cristancho, lanza en la Filbo 30, su primera obra investigativa que narra la lucha estudiantil en los últimos 20 años. La investigación, que fue apoyada por la Asociación Sindical de Profesores Universitarios, Aspu, pretende ubicar las peleas estudiantiles de las que, entre otras, él fue protagonista. Teoria & Praxis habló con su autor que nos dejó entre ver el contenido de su investigación.

–¿Cómo se escriben dos décadas de lucha estudiantil en Colombia?

–En este caso se realizó una aproximación a la movilización estudiantil en el periodo comprendido entre los años 1990 a 2010. Se hizo un entrecruce crítico de fuentes académicas, institucionales, testimoniales y de prensa del periódico VOZ, y desde allí se plantea un análisis del neoliberalismo en la educación superior, sus evidentes consecuencias negativas como proceso de privatización y mercantilización de este espacio cultural de la sociedad colombiana, y se describe la respuesta que desde los jóvenes estudiantes universitarios se dio a dicho panorama, donde se exigió siempre hacer de la educación un derecho garantizado en toda su complejidad por el Estado en el que el conocimiento no estuviera en función de satisfacer solamente las necesidades del mercado y el capital, sino que estuviera enfocado primordialmente en solucionar las necesidades de un proyecto de país soberano en beneficio directo de la población más vulnerada.

En este análisis de las luchas estudiantiles se hace una caracterización de las mismas según sus fines y sus dimensiones locales o nacionales. Se hace un balance de las experiencias de confluencia y organización nacional, sus principales dificultades internas, y el impacto de la política de represión estatal y paraestatal, el exterminio físico de la fuerza social estudiantil, como uno de los factores determinantes que se ha impuesto para cortar las posibilidades de cohesión permanente del movimiento, lo cual le dificulta realizar grandes conquistas de forma sistemática y directa. A grandes rasgos, este fue el ejercicio que se realizó.

Las peleas

–¿Qué papel juega el movimiento estudiantil en la historia política del país?

–En el periodo estudiado, el movimiento estudiantil, entendido como un proceso ligado a condiciones objetivas y a la voluntad de sus protagonistas, ha jugado un papel destacado en la vida política nacional, en la medida que ha desempeñado un rol fundamental como fuerza social en coyunturas decisivas para la democratización del país como lo fue el movimiento por la constituyente, a pesar de todas las limitaciones que contiene nuestra actual Constitución; ha sido un motor de la lucha antimperialista como por ejemplo fueron importantes jornadas de protesta en rechazo del ALCA y el TLC; en el apoyo decidido a batallas desarrolladas por diferentes sectores sociales en contra del neoliberalismo y la privatización de derechos como la salud, la educación en sus diferentes niveles, el transporte, entre otros. En el fomento del pensamiento crítico y la defensa de la vida y los derechos humanos. Y ha sido un actor permanente para la conquista de la solución negociada al conflicto armado colombiano y la construcción de la paz para el país.

Fuerza estudiantil

–¿Fue protagonista en algún episodio de la historia que escribió?

–Quisiera destacar algunos episodios que considero importantes del movimiento estudiantil. En general las luchas contra los planes nacionales de desarrollo (PND) en todo el ciclo de gobiernos neoliberales, pero en particular la pelea que se dio desde el Comando Nacional Unitario contra el PND de Pastrana en el 99 que permitió la continuación de la entrada de recursos del Estado a la educación pública paliando su privatización. Como ya lo mencioné, el movimiento por la constituyente que abrió la posibilidad de concretar libertades civiles y políticas. Las marchas y jornadas de protesta nacionales universitarias que ganaron presupuesto y evitaron la privatización total de universidades como en el caso de la Universidad del Atlántico. Y la participación destacada de la fuerza social estudiantil en la exigencia y acompañamiento a la solución negociada del conflicto armado en el caso de los diálogos de paz con Gaviria y con Pastrana.

Por mi parte, estuve ligado a la lucha de los universitarios desde el 2007, y principalmente contribuí desde las universidades privadas, más o menos hasta el 2013. Aquí cabe resaltar los ejercicios organizativos unitarios distritales, y las peleas por congelamiento de matrículas y por la condonación de deudas por parte del Icetex.

Las victorias

–¿En qué está hoy el movimiento estudiantil?

–Hoy el movimiento a mi manera de ver, se viene reencontrando tímidamente a nivel nacional para construir una respuesta contundente a las nuevas propuestas y políticas públicas que desde un enfoque neoliberal y el Gobierno, fortalecen la privatización, la mercantilización y la entrada del ánimo de lucro a la educación superior, este último frenado contundentemente por parte de la MANE en el 2011. La dispersión relativa del movimiento a nivel nacional, ha dejado protagonismo a luchas locales importantes como por ejemplo ha sido todo el movimiento constituyente en la Universidad Distrital.

–Y ¿qué viene para el movimiento estudiantil?

–A propósito del triunfo todavía incompleto de la solución negociada al conflicto armado y la construcción de la paz en el país, a mi manera de ver, el movimiento estudiantil tiene tres tareas urgentes. La primera de ellas es visibilizarse como víctima del conflicto armado, donde el asesinato de sus dirigentes ha sido sistemático por parte del Estado y el paramilitarismo, costándole fuertemente a nivel organizativo. Por ello, se debe reclamar en el marco de la reparación y la reconciliación, bajo el objetivo del fortalecimiento de la democracia a nivel nacional, la financiación y las garantías suficientes por parte del Estado, para la construcción de una organización nacional unitaria del estudiantado universitario, que pasa por la reconstrucción y edificación de la base de dicha organización por medio de los consejos superiores estudiantiles en todas las universidades del país.

La segunda tarea es la movilización contundente que frene las actuales políticas mercantilizadoras y privatizadoras del Gobierno hacia la educación, que combinando reivindicaciones de mediano y largo plazo, y articulando las luchas locales con las nacionales, gane finalmente la educación como derecho para el conjunto de la población colombiana, como eje político y gremial articulador de la reconstrucción y edificación organizativa a nivel nacional, y como una necesidad para una verdadera paz estable y duradera. Y por último, la tercera tarea, es hacer un acompañamiento movilizador y propositivo a la implementación de los acuerdos de paz, que ponga a la academia en función de todas las necesidades que demanda este proceso, aportando al fortalecimiento del desarrollo democrático del país en su camino de consolidación de la paz.

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