¿Desaparecerá el campesino de la ciudad?

342
Sembrando conciencia. Foto Yeison García, Agencia de prensa IPC.

“Si me quitan la tierra es como si me quitaran un pedacito de las venas”, dice una campesina de uno de los corregimientos de Medellín que ve amenazada su existencia en el lugar que heredó de sus abuelos

Bibiana Ramírez – Agencia Prensa Rural
@bibianarm 

En Medellín existen alrededor de 50 mil campesinos, dijo en el 2012 Planeación municipal. Pero algunas asociaciones afirman que ese censo no se ha hecho y no se sabe la cantidad. Lo que sí saben es que cada día disminuyen más; la expansión urbana los está llevando a la desaparición. En esta ciudad hay cinco corregimientos que aún mantienen su cultura agrícola y de los que se provee gran parte de la alimentación, pero también existen todas las amenazas posibles para que estos campesinos salgan del territorio.

“La expansión urbana nos pone en riesgo, cambia el valor del uso del suelo y, con ese cambio, la Administración, sin miramientos, va subiendo el impuesto predial sin tener en cuenta que tradicionalmente es comunidad campesina que terminó rodeada de formas urbanas y, al subir los impuestos, la familia campesina pierde su predio”, dice Héctor Lugo, de la Corporación Penca de Sábila, que por décadas ha acompañado y organizado a los campesinos de los corregimientos de Medellín.

Otra gran amenaza es el mercado irregular. No hay estabilidad de precios para sus cosechas, no hay un mercado justo y esto lo vienen reclamando los campesinos de todo el país hace mucho tiempo. Los de Medellín han buscado distintas estrategias para que su trabajo sea valorado, sin embargo no lo consiguen. La última fue manifestarse regalando las verduras.

El 21 de enero de este año unos 500 campesinos del corregimiento de San Cristóbal decidieron volcarse a la carretera, a la entrada del túnel de Occidente, a regalar cilantro a todo el que pasara. “Tres mil pesos cuesta producir un kilo de cilantro. Los intermediarios pagan por ese kilo 250, 500 y en el mejor día, mil pesos. En un almacén de cadena ese kilo lo venden a cinco mil. Nos queda mejor regalarlo”, dice un agricultor de San Cristóbal.

Advierten que seguirán haciendo este tipo de actividades cada vez que sea necesario como protesta para dignificar el trabajo del campo. Y algo que los indigna constantemente es que cada que entra una nueva administración tienen que repetir las propuestas que se han dedicado a elaborar juiciosamente en comunidad. “Pero todas esas propuestas están en los anaqueles de la administración”, agrega Héctor Lugo.

La finca es un patrimonio

El campesino de Medellín vive un momento de degradación, de empobrecimiento, tanto en la vivienda como en la capacidad productiva. No tiene subsidios, ni pensión. Por el contrario su vida se encarece al llegar foráneos interesados en sus tierras o con el llamado desarrollo a pagarles miserias por un espacio que además de ser tierra, es toda una cultura familiar.

En el corregimiento de Santa Elena ya casi no quedan fincas campesinas. La mayoría fueron parceladas porque las familias necesitaban otra forma de sustento, como vender partes o arrendar predios. Las pocas que quedan son para el turismo con la cultura silletera. Los acueductos comunitarios los quieren privatizar.

En San Cristóbal, con la vía al mar y el túnel también fue cortada la tradición agrícola, la cultura campesina, además sus cultivos no fueron reparados ni protegidos por esos proyectos. Germán, un campesino sonriente, con sus manos marcadas por el trabajo y el conocimiento que le sale por los poros, denuncia que esas obras lo que les han traído es miseria. Ahora están en proyecto de una segunda vía al mar.

“Por un palo de café me están pagando 300 pesos con la nueva carretera. Al año de sembrado ese palo de café, con todos los trabajos que conlleva, da dos kilos de grano que cada uno me lo pagan a nueve mil pesos, serían 18 mil. Y ese árbol da fruto durante seis años. Una vez un vecino me dañó unas cebollas y él me dijo que eso no valía nada. La inspectora me dijo que el precio lo ponía yo. Entonces ¿por qué en los proyectos los precios lo ponen ellos?”, dice.

Y son claros en sus exigencias. No quieren seguir siendo los que siempre pierden ante el desarrollo. Proponen que se debe proteger la economía del campo. No quieren salir de sus territorios para ir a vivir a edificios, que es lo común en Medellín. “Uno no se imagina, después de vivir al aire libre, trabajando la tierra, que después nos metan en una caja de fósforos. Uno se deprime”, dice otro campesino con voz entrecortada.

Y más que patrimonio, la parcela permite al campesino experimentar, controlar las cosechas y decidir cómo quiere trabajar. “Es la única en producir biodiversidad alimentaria. La agroindustria no puede. La pequeña parcela tiene producción agroecológica, limpia”, afirma Héctor Lugo. Y es que en los corregimientos de Medellín muchos trabajadores de la tierra han decidido dejar los químicos y explorar otras alternativas de siembra.

Alianza por el territorio

A pesar de las adversidades son palpables la lucha y el trabajo consciente tanto del campesino como de las organizaciones sociales que los acompañan, asesoran y capacitan para que sigan cultivando la tierra. Por ejemplo la figura de Distrito Rural Campesino, que vienen promoviendo hace años, es un instrumento para la planificación y la gestión del territorio que quedó incluido en el Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial.

La Corporación Penca de Sábila desde el año pasado ha impulsado una alianza por el territorio y la vida campesina del Valle de Aburrá, donde la Universidad de Antioquia, la Universidad Nacional y la Universidad San Buenaventura, se han unido para “apoyar la participación de la comunidad campesina en los diferentes proyectos, programas y desarrollos que se hagan, tanto en Medellín como en el Valle de Aburrá”.

Con esta alianza también pretenden, a través de una escuela de pensamiento y acción campesina, fortalecer procesos de participación. Por ejemplo que el campesino no tenga que vender su tierra, sino que el Estado genere estrategias de conservación de esos territorios. Todos sabemos que el campesino ha sido un protector innato de la tierra.

“Para la ciudad mantener y apoyar el campo produce beneficios. Ellos son los profesionales de la tierra, son los que embellecen el entorno y nos alimentan. Para Medellín, perder la profesión campesina sería un desastre”, afirma Héctor Lugo.

El campesino se resiste a dejar su tierra. El citadino tiene la responsabilidad de protegerlo ante el sistema depredador, consumiendo lo que ellos cultivan y pagando precios justos para que no tengan que regalar lo que con tanto esfuerzo produjeron.

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