Desacato a la naturaleza

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Comunidades de La Guajira llaman al gobierno nacional a obedecer a la Corte Constitucional y proteger el Arroyo Bruno. Foto Carolina Tejada.

Corte Constitucional ordena proteger el Arroyo Bruno de los intereses de El Cerrejón de desviarlo para explotar sus recursos, afectando la vida de las comunidades. El Ministerio de Ambiente malinterpreta la sentencia y decide mantener el tapón hidráulico que bloquea el paso del agua

Carolina Tejada Sánchez
@carolltejada 

El departamento de La Guajira tiene, en contra de la voluntad de su población, la mina de carbón a cielo abierto más grande del continente. Los intereses expansionistas de este proyecto, en cabeza de la empresa Carbones de El Cerrejón, ha implicado la desviación de distintas fuentes de agua y la construcción de una represa sobre el río Palomino, entre otra serie de iniciativas que atentan contra los derechos al agua para el consumo y la siembra de las comunidades Wayúu.

El desvió del Arroyo Bruno es otro de los intereses de El Cerrejón. Las comunidades tuvieron que acudir a las cortes para obligar a la empresa a parar dicho proyecto. Con la Sentencia SU-698 de 2017, finalmente, la Corte Constitucional ordenó la protección de los derechos fundamentales al agua, a la seguridad alimentaria y a la salud de más de treinta comunidades Wayúu que se verían afectadas.

Sin embargo, dos años después, la Mesa Interinstitucional del Arroyo Bruno, que la misma Corte ordenó que se configurara con presencia de las comunidades y del grupo de investigación que acompaña a los Wayúu, no solo fue convocada durante estos años sin presencia de los directamente afectados, sino que los representantes del Ministerio de Ambiente, aparentemente, junto a los delegados de la empresa Cerrejón, de manera sorpresiva, habrían desconocido el llamado de la Corte.

“De manera sorpresiva nos enteramos, por el Ministerio de Ambiente, que, desde la notificación de la sentencia a la convocatoria a esta primera mesa, ya se había tomado la decisión contraria a la Orden Octava de la Corte, de mantener el tapón hidráulico que bloquea el Arroyo Bruno”, expresan públicamente los afectados con este proyecto y quienes los acompañan en su defensa.

Aseguran, además, que de manera reiterada han anunciado que, “los representantes del Ministerio de Ambiente y de las entidades presentes hacen deliberadamente una lectura limitada y parcializada de las directrices y de las órdenes de la Corte Constitucional”. Este pronunciamiento se hace público luego de que los pasados 5 y 6 de junio del 2019 se convocara la Mesa Interinstitucional del Arroyo Bruno, y se evidenciaran las intenciones de quienes, de manera arbitraria, vienen tomando decisiones de espaldas a las demandadas por la Corte.

Por otra parte, además del derecho a participar desde sus inicios en la mesa, las comunidades y el grupo de abogados e investigadores que las acompañan, tienen derecho a conocer los documentos, acuerdos y actas que se han adelantado a sus espaldas. Sin embargo, “la respuesta ha sido la negación del acceso a la información, actas y documentos respectivos a las sesiones de trabajo adelantadas a puerta cerrada durante más de dos años por las diferentes entidades estatales”, afirman las comunidades

El llamado de las comunidades

“Están obrando de mala fe, con negligencia y en desacato a una sentencia judicial, de tal importancia, que tiene la potencialidad de cambiar el valor que tenemos sobre el agua y quienes serían los mayores afectados”, reiteran, enfatizando que es una actuación que incurre en desacato, lo cual también tiene implicaciones jurídicas para quienes participan desde la institucionalidad.

El proceso por defensa del Arroyo Bruno, no inició, ni terminó con el llamado de las cortes. Al día de hoy, existen tres instrumentos jurídicos distintos que, según el grupo de investigación que acompaña este proceso, ordenan garantías para su protección. Uno de ellos como corredor ecológico y ecosistema estratégico de especial importancia, el Pomca del río Ranchería, el Esquema de Ordenamiento Territorial, EOT, del municipio de Albania, y otro por la reserva forestal Montes de la Oca, como parte del Sistema Nacional de Parques Naturales, ya que hace parte del único 3% de bosque seco tropical protegido en el país, y uno de los ecosistemas más amenazados y de importancia ecológica ante fenómenos como el cambio climático.

El equipo de defensa del arroyo, también menciona que, “el desvío de este importante afluente, el arroyo más caudaloso del río Ranchería, se inició con el taponamiento hidráulico del cauce natural y la construcción de un cauce artificial de 3.6 kilómetros. No obstante, la Corte Constitucional suspendió dichas obras debido a que se comprobó que existen graves incertidumbres en la licencia ambiental respecto de los impactos ambientales, sociales y culturales del proyecto. La sentencia ordenó que estas incertidumbres deben ser resueltas por la Mesa Interinstitucional para determinar la viabilidad ambiental y social del proyecto y su continuidad”.

El descaro de las instituciones y del Cerrejón

Dada la importancia del espacio de concertación, como lo es la Mesa Interinstitucional, las comunidades afectadas directamente, asistieron a la reunión del día cinco de junio. Allí estuvieron las comunidades Wayúu y afro de Paradero, La Gran Parada, La Horqueta, entre otras comunidades, y las organizaciones intervinientes, Cinep-PPP, Censat- Agua Viva y Cajar. Se socializaron las propuestas del cronograma y las “reglas de funcionamiento” de cara a la sentencia de la Corte.

Sin embargo, “las entidades del gobierno y en particular, los delegados del Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, MADS, desconocieron permanentemente a las comunidades e intervinientes como integrantes de la Mesa, haciendo una lectura limitada y parcializada de la Sentencia SU 698/17, pues el fallo dictamina, de manera clara, a la empresa y entidades de la Mesa, integrar a la sociedad civil y las instancias académicas que participaron del proceso judicial (5.8.3 directrices a la Mesa Interinstitucional y orden cuarta)” , y contrario a ello, “delegados de la empresa Cerrejón y de las entidades se reunieron por aparte y deliberaron en conjunto durante toda la jornada del día 5 de junio, tal y como lo habían hecho por espacio de dos años”, expresaron las comunidades.

Ante dicha situación, y como víctimas ahora de los malos manejos institucionales, han solicitado a los órganos de control, como la Defensoría del Pueblo, Procuraduría General de la Nación y Contraloría, “que sean garantes de la protección de los derechos de las comunidades y a la Corte Constitucional para que brinde garantías para la participación efectiva de las comunidades, así como la participación de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil y de los expertos … y órdenes que establece la Corte Constitucional, teniendo en cuenta que estamos hablando de un departamento en crisis humanitaria por la escasez del agua”.

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