El cuarto propio es el símbolo de esta libertad

141

Un salario como símbolo de independencia

Renata Cabrales
@RENATARELATA 

En El cuarto propio, Virginia Woolf habla de la independencia económica de las mujeres para poder escribir sus propias novelas. El cuarto es, entonces, “un espacio simbólico que cada mujer tiene la labor de conquistar”. Pero, inmediatamente, reacciona la escritora y advierte que no es tan fácil para una mujer, en ese entonces, renunciar a lo que le había tocado y pone como ejemplo el hecho de engendrar hijos y educarlos.

La escritora inglesa de inicios del siglo 20 había planteado entonces, que para que una mujer pudiese escribir novelas con tranquilidad, era necesario que tuviese cierta libertad económica. El cuarto propio es el símbolo de esta libertad.

Pero, sin embargo, la libertad económica de las mujeres ha sido casi imposible de conquistar en casi todos los ámbitos de la vida diaria y la primera en hablar de la situación de las mujeres obreras, por ejemplo, es Flora Tristán en La unión obrera. También se refiere a la situación de las mujeres trabajadoras, que son parias en la sociedad “La mujer (la mitad de la humanidad) ha sido echada de la Iglesia, de la ley, de la sociedad”, también señala “cómo los prejuicios están presentes entre los obreros y que se ha naturalizado la idea de la inferioridad de la mujer”.

Advierte Tristán que “la mujer puede ser llamada incluso esclava porque la mujer es, por así decirlo, propiedad del marido”.

Por eso, según la autora de La unión obrera, era necesario, en ese entonces, defender los derechos de las mujeres obreras y “proclamar los derechos de la mujer y garantizar a varones y mujeres la igualdad, el disfrute, la instrucción y las mejoras”.

Lo más importante, la autora propone unir la lucha de género con la de clase y advierte que la liberación de las mujeres debe constituir parte de la lucha por la emancipación de la clase trabajadora. Asimismo, advierte que los obreros deben emanciparse teniendo en cuenta también, las demandas de las mujeres y su lucha por la conquista de los derechos laborales.

“La cuestión de la mujer”

Pero, hoy en día, muy a pesar de todos los postulados socialistas o no sobre la situación de las mujeres siguen siendo vigentes dentro de una sociedad patriarcal: la violencia machista, las doctrinas religiosas en contra del derecho al aborto, la violencia sexual, el acoso sexual laboral, entre otras manifestaciones machistas, siguen siendo el motor que hace que se active la lucha feminista por los derechos de las mujeres.

En su momento, los socialistas del siglo XIX hablaron de “La cuestión de la mujer” que hasta el sol de hoy plantea cuestiones como ¿cómo crear una sociedad donde las mujeres no sufran más este tipo de opresión? ¿Y cuál debería ser la actitud de los revolucionarios comunistas hacia “la lucha de la mujer?”

Mucho se ha avanzado en la cuestión de los derechos de las mujeres y cada vez estas asumen más cargos profesionales en diferentes campos y se puede admitir que esta entrada al mundo laboral es causa de diferentes luchas, una de esas luchas ha consistido en poner fin a la división sexual del trabajo, teniendo en cuenta que hombres y mujeres tienen las mismas capacidades.

Otra de esas luchas consiste en la búsqueda de una independencia económica, como lo advierte Woolf en El cuarto propio, no solo para que las mujeres puedan tener una independencia económica y no “depender del marido”, lo que muchas veces hace que se justifique la violencia machista sino que, de esta forma, tienen más libertad de participar en espacios públicos y así mismo, en la política.

Engels y el acoso sexual en las fábricas

Por su parte, en sus escritos, Engels también buscaba denunciar la situación de las mujeres obreras y advertía que los propietarios de las fábricas “solían seducir a las trabajadoras bajo amenaza de despido y algunos convertían su fábrica en un harén privado. De este modo se extendía la prostitución”

En La sagrada familia, Marx explica cómo los progresos sociales se dan en la medida que hay un progreso en cuanto a la libertad de las mujeres y asi mismo la decadencia de la sociedad está relacionada con “el decrecimiento de la libertad de las mujeres”… “El grado de emancipación de la mujer es la medida natural de la emancipación general”.

Acoso sexual en la Universidad de Ibagué

Pero hoy en día es muy difícil que se tengan en cuenta los postulados socialistas anteriormente mencionados. Lo notamos en diferentes casos de acoso sexual laboral que muchas mujeres denuncian a diario, evidenciando que aún, hoy en día, es difícil para las mujeres poder ejercer tranquilas sus derechos laborales, sin que les recuerden a todo momento que, de alguna forma, el machismo les hará pagar por el hecho de haberse atrevido a salir del espacio privado al que habían sido conminadas por la sociedad patriarcal.

En este orden de ideas, vemos el caso de la Universidad de Ibagué, donde, debido a que la docente Mónica Godoy se atrevió a denunciar unos casos de acoso sexual a varias estudiantes y trabajadoras en general, dentro de la institución, y según denunció en una entrevista “un jefe de seguridad y un profesor que era instructor de gimnasio fueron los protagonistas más notorios de varios casos de acoso sexual y laboral, y acto sexual violento contra una estudiante”; fue despedida  injustamente de su lugar de trabajo.

Pero, según un fallo de la Corte, la universidad tendrá que reintegrar a profesora. La orden la dio la Corte Constitucional y se dio un plazo de 48 horas para que la Universidad de Ibagué vincule de nuevo a la docente a quien le “terminó el contrato sin justa causa por atreverse a denunciar lo que allí sucedía”.

En este caso, teniendo en cuenta la respuesta de la justicia, no se puede negar que se ha avanzado en algunos casos sobre derechos de las mujeres.

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