Cravo Norte-Caracas-Tlaxcala, una paz esquiva

167
Un aspecto de los diálogos de Caracas, un esfuerzo que no fructificó por la negativa posición del gobierno de Colombia.

Mientras en el Gobierno de Barco Vargas (1986-1990) los militares adelantaron sin ningún éxito la Operación Centauro, la administración Gaviria Trujillo adoptó la “guerra integral”, en ambos casos sin éxito

Carlos A. Lozano Guillén
@carloslozanogui 

El gobierno de César Gaviria Trujillo heredó del anterior de Virgilio Barco Vargas, también liberal, los procesos de paz con el M-19, el EPL, el movimiento indígena Quintín Lame y otros grupos guerrilleros pequeños, con el compromiso de  llevar a cabo la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente para reformar la anacrónica Carta Política de 1886 y adoptar cambios institucionales favorables a la paz.

La idea inicial era la de hacer unas reformas puntuales y así fue convocada, con agenda limitada, la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, pero la Corte Suprema de Justicia que a la sazón era la que ejercía el control constitucional, no aceptó la decisión del Ejecutivo y rechazó la reforma parcial y resolvió que debía ser la propia Asamblea Nacional Constituyente la que señalara el alcance del mandato ciudadano y se orientó por una nueva Constitución. Así surgió la Carta del 91 que estableció importantes reformas en el campo de los derechos humanos y de la participación ciudadana, en la práctica anulados después con la reglamentación de los mismos o en las más de treinta reformas que ha recibido la Constitución desde su promulgación. El Gobierno se reservó para sí los capítulos económicos y sociales para institucionalizar la política neoliberal de apertura económica y privatizaciones. Fue una especie de negociación para que todos quedaran satisfechos. Se ha salvado  la tutela siempre en la mira de los gobiernos burgueses de turno.

La bandera de la paz en alto

Mientras en el Gobierno de Barco Vargas (1986-1990) los militares adelantaron sin ningún éxito la Operación Centauro, la administración Gaviria Trujillo adoptó la “guerra integral”, incluyendo el traidor ataque a la sede del Secretariado de las FARC-EP, el 9 de diciembre de 1990, el mismo día de la elección de los integrantes de la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, a pesar que  estaba invitando a las guerrillas en pie de lucha a designar unos pocos voceros para que participaran en sus deliberaciones. Así no más. Sin diálogos ni compromisos previos en el orden político y social. La “guerra integral” no logró la derrota de las fuerzas insurgentes como tampoco llegó la madre de todas las batallas, anunciada con bombos y platillos por los altos mandos militares.

Sin embargo, el Estado Mayor Central de las FARC una y otra vez planteó la necesidad de abrir diálogos de paz en el camino de construir una solución política pactada para superar el conflicto. Otro tanto hicieron el Comando Central del ELN y en conjunto la Coordinadora Guerrillera “Simón Bolívar”, integrada por las FARC, el ELN y el sector del EPL que no se acogió a la paz engañosa de Barco y Gaviria. “La paz es una bandera de los revolucionarios” nos diría años después el comandante Manuel Marulanda en una de las tantas entrevistas para el semanario VOZ.

El presidente Gaviria no aceptó las propuestas, tal vez embriagado por el triunfalismo en los operativos de orden público que no lograron el objetivo de la victoria militar. Fue la constante desde que se inició el conflicto armado y sus antecedentes en 1948 y 1964.

Fue histórica la necedad de la clase dominante colombiana y del imperialismo yanqui de negar la génesis política, social, económica e histórica del alzamiento armado guerrillero a lo largo de más de medio siglo. Todo para justificar la guerra, las doctrinas anticomunistas y contrainsurgentes, que alimentaron la confrontación armada, la guerra sucia y el terrorismo de Estado.

Cravo Norte abre el diálogo

La presión de importantes sectores democráticos políticos y sociales y de la Coordinadora Guerrillera “Simón Bolívar” logra abrir el debate sobre la necesidad de los diálogos de paz, a la par que funcionaba la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente. En abril de 1991 un grupo de guerrilleros hacen la toma pacífica y no armada de la Embajada de Venezuela y designan como mediadores al doctor Alfredo Vásquez Carrizosa, presidente del Comité Permanente para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos, Hernán Motta, senador del Partido Comunista y de la Unión Patriótica y Álvaro Leyva Durán, constituyente y exministro de Estado. De las gestiones de las personalidades y las exigencias de los ocupantes de la Embajada, resulta la convocatoria de una reunión del Gobierno y los ocupantes, en Cravo Norte, Arauca, el 15 de mayo de 1991, cuando quedaba menos de un mes para la promulgación de la nueva Constitución Política que consignaba el Estado Social de Derecho.

Diálogos en Caracas

En Cravo Norte el acuerdo fue comenzar diálogos de paz, que tuvieron inicio en junio de 1991, en Caracas, República de Venezuela, siendo presidente Carlos Andrés Pérez. De entrada, con aparente optimismo, empieza el debate con el tema de cese de fuegos y con la propuesta de que las guerrillas se ubicaran en unas pocas zonas de distensión para poder controlar el cumplimiento del mismo. Estas propusieron, a la vez, 96 zonas de distensión y la realización de tres encuentros nacionales sobre temas específicos políticos y sociales. Fueron largas las discusiones, mientras en Colombia arreciaban los operativos militares y la guerra sucia contra la Unión Patriótica. En septiembre del mismo año, en el Cauca, es víctima de un atentado criminal el entonces presidente del Senado de la República Aurelio Iragori Hormaza y el gobierno suspende los diálogos de manera indefinida, le niega una intervención a la coordinadora en la Constituyente y deja casi sin piso la política de paz. La coordinadora para salvarla propone un cese de fuegos bilateral y se acerca a la propuesta de zonas de distensión del Gobierno, sin embargo éste no acepta nada, la presión es enorme desde la derecha, la “gran prensa” y el gobierno de Estados Unidos.

La presión popular y las gestiones de los expresidentes Alfonso López Michelsen y Misael Pastrana Borrero, así como de los dirigentes comunistas Álvaro Vásquez y Miller Chacón y los parlamentarios Hernán Motta y Manuel Cepeda, buscan continuar el proceso. Los diálogos se reanudan, con bastante desdén del gobierno de César Gaviria, y en noviembre quedan de nuevo en suspenso por decisión oficial hasta el año siguiente (1992).

Rumbo a Tlaxcala

Comienzan en Caracas en febrero de 1992, pero ocurren los acontecimientos en Venezuela con el pronunciamiento del Movimiento de Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías y se cierra la posibilidad de mantener la sede de los diálogos en la patria de Bolívar. Estos son trasladados a Tlaxcala, México, donde se reanudan a partir del mes de marzo de 1992, bajo enormes presiones de la derecha colombiana que le cuestionaba a Gaviria “porqué negociaba reformas con los terroristas”. A los pocos días es secuestrado en Norte de Santander por un comando del EPL el ex ministro Argelino Durán Quintero, quien fallece en cautiverio. El acontecimiento le sirve como pretexto al Gobierno nacional para suspender de nuevo los diálogos. Las partes fijan un plazo hasta octubre del mismo año para reanudarlo. Sin embargo, llegado el término el presidente César Gaviria en una intervención pública arremete contra los guerrilleros a los que califica de “perros rabiosos” en medio de insultos. Según Horacio Serpa, consejero de paz, nunca fueron rotos los diálogos, pero el gobierno no retornó a la mesa. Los voceros de las guerrillas regresaron a las montañas de Colombia. “Volveremos a sentarnos después de otro millón de muertos” fue la frase lapidaria de Alfonso Cano. El comandante Manuel Marulanda nos diría años después: “a César Gaviria la oligarquía no le dejó hacer la paz con reformas, como siempre, la querían gratis, no entendieron que la guerrilla estaba en ascenso y que la confrontación se iba a escalar muy fuerte”. Fue lo que ocurrió. Muertos, tragedias y destrucciones como lo avizoró Cano.

Cravo Norte-Caracas-Tlaxcala fue un esfuerzo que resultó esquivo para la paz, la oligarquía no permitió el debate sobre las reformas democráticas. La historia se repetiría años después en el Caguán.

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