Corte Internacional de Justicia, CIJ:Habrá fallo sobre mar territorial para Bolivia

Evo Morales, presidente de Bolivia.

La Corte Internacional de Justicia, CIJ, anunció que el primero de octubre próximo procederá a dar lectura del contenido del fallo sobre la demanda marítima boliviana en el caso denominado “Obligación de negociar un acceso al Océano Pacífico (Bolivia contra Chile)”. El proceso fue asumido por la CIJ a raíz de una demanda entablada por el gobierno boliviano contra el de Chile, en el año 2013.

Desde la constitución de la república boliviana, este país tuvo acceso al mar pacífico, hasta 1879, cuando su vecino chileno invadió la franja costera boliviana e inició una guerra contra su vecino. Al término de las hostilidades, Chile mantuvo el control de la franja y Bolivia perdió el acceso al mar.

Una nueva historia

A partir de entonces y a pesar de que las dos naciones suscribieron un tratado de paz y amistad en 1904, sucesivos gobiernos chilenos prometieron muchas veces, e incumplieron, el ofrecimiento de iniciar conversaciones bilaterales con el fin de garantizar un acceso soberano al mar por parte de la nación boliviana.

La demanda boliviana básicamente lo que plantea es su derecho a acceder al mar, y para ello la parte chilena debe iniciar de inmediato conversaciones en esa dirección. El presidente boliviano es optimista en el sentido de que el alto tribunal de justicia va a amprar su aspiración.

En un acto reciente en Cochabamba, Evo Morales dijo que Bolivia “tiene mucha esperanza y mucha fe” en su demanda que, aseguró, está fundamentada en la verdad y el derecho internacional. “A partir del primero de octubre habrá una nueva historia para Bolivia y Chile, porque somos países vecinos y hermanos de por vida, y no pueden quedar temas pendientes”, dijo el mandatario.

“La Corte debe invocarnos a un diálogo -puntualizó Evo Morales-, a una negociación de buena fe sobre todos los temas ofrecidos por Chile durante casi un siglo, acuerdos -en algunos momentos- no cumplidos, ofrecimientos y ofertas por parte de Chile, pero también resoluciones de la OEA”.

Por su parte, el canciller chileno, Roberto Ampuero, dijo que su país espera “con tranquilidad” el fallo. “Chile subraya su apego irrestricto al derecho internacional y a la intangibilidad de los tratados vigentes”, precisó el diplomático. En el pasado, la dictadura de Augusto Pinochet se parapetó en los tratados vigentes para afirmar que “no hay nada que negociar con Bolivia”. Chile sostiene que la demanda boliviana no tiene fundamento jurídico, pues ambas naciones establecieron sus fronteras en el tratado de paz de 1904.

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