Consulta popular en Fusagasugá: Una victoria para la vida

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Mitin en Fusagasugá en rechazo al fracking. Foto Diego Andrés Díaz.

La primera expresión contundente de la ciudadanía de Fusagasugá contra el fracking, después del pronunciamiento de la Corte Constitucional

Andrés Mauricio Reyes
@mauroreyes98 

Tras la incertidumbre legal sobre la validez de las consultas promovidas en contra de la exploración minera y petrolera en diferentes zonas del país, en el municipio de Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, se desarrolló la consulta popular que pondría freno a la intervención de multinacionales en su territorio.

El camino ha sido espinoso. Las comunidades de los municipios de Fusagasugá y San Bernardo pertenecientes a la provincia del Sumapaz, se han mantenido activos en la defensa de sus recursos naturales.

Cinco años pasaron hasta mediados de 2018 para que, sectores ambientalistas, campesinos y líderes sociales de la provincia del Sumapaz, conocieran la fijación de la fecha para el desarrollo de la consulta. Dicha decisión fue aplazada debido al calendario electoral que elegiría Congreso y Presidente de la República. Luego de pasar las elecciones, la Registraduría Nacional definió que el 21 de octubre de 2018 se llevaría a cabo dicha actividad electoral, la cual permite a la población de estos municipios decidir si está de acuerdo o no con la intervención del subsuelo en sus territorios.

Freno legal

Es evidente que las multinacionales interesadas en estos proyectos tampoco se han quedado quietas, pues, han apelado a recursos legales para ir desestimando la acción de las consultas populares. Prueba de ello el fallo de la Corte Constitucional del día 11 de octubre de 2018 que deja sin efectos el fallo que aprueba el desarrollo de la consulta en Cumaral, Meta, considerando que “no se puede prohibir actividades de extracción a través de este mecanismo de participación ciudadana” dejando sin piso constitucional cualquier decisión tomada por voto popular.

Aquí se entrelazan dos conceptos, Estado y Nación, que además son pieza fundamental de la democracia. El primero de ellos representa el conglomerado social jurídicamente constituido representado en sus instituciones, es decir, las ramas del poder público en sus entes territoriales, el segundo por su parte es el pueblo. En consecuencia, son el Estado y sus instituciones y no la Nación, quienes deciden sobre el futuro de las comunidades, este ha sido el argumento legal de las cortes para frenar la legitimidad de esta elección.

Para el caso de las consultas, si se llegase a limitar – como se pretende- el efecto de sus resultados, se estaría vulnerando el artículo 79 de la Constitución: “Todas las personas tienen derecho a gozar de un ambiente sano. La ley garantizará la participación de la comunidad en las decisiones que puedan afectarlo”.

Sin embargo, mediante una Acción de Tutela interpuesta por un particular que alega presunto detrimento patrimonial por el costo de la consulta, el Consejo de Estado, en la Sala de lo Contencioso Administrativo decide notificar de carácter urgente el día 19 de octubre a la registraduría para cancelar la consulta programada en el municipio de San Bernardo, Cundinamarca.

En consecuencia, invita al Congreso “para que defina los instrumentos y mecanismos que permitan la participación ciudadana” y garantice “la forma de hacer compatibles los principios de coordinación y concurrencia de la Nación y las entidades territoriales”.

Esta situación despertó la indignación de los habitantes de San Bernardo quienes se manifestaron inconformes con dicha decisión, saliendo al parque principal el día sábado 20 hasta altas horas de la noche en protesta contra las Cortes por los efectos de sus conclusiones.

Campaña por la Consulta

Los diferentes comités promotores de la Consulta en Fusagasugá se comprometieron a seguir adelantando el proceso, hecho determinante a la hora de ver los resultados. Casi un 99 por ciento en contra de cualquier exploración del territorio con fines de extracción de recursos como el petróleo, puntualmente el fracking.

Entre las actividades desarrolladas se encuentra la movilización del día 12 de octubre, complementaria a diferentes jornadas de socialización de la pregunta: ¿Está usted de acuerdo sí o no, que en el municipio de Fusagasugá, se realicen actividades de exploración sísmica, perforación exploratoria, fracking, producción de hidrocarburos y minería a gran escala?, y la importancia de votar por el no, campaña desarrollada por la voluntad de las comunidades, con el único interés de defender el agua, defender la vida.

Organizaciones sociales, ambientalistas, partidos y movimientos políticos alternativos como, Unión Patriótica, Colombia Humana, Partido Comunista y FARC, se hicieron presentes acompañando el proceso, con el compromiso de salvaguardar del apetito voraz de las multinacionales, los recursos no renovables que esperan saquear de la madre tierra.

Resultados

El trabajo unitario es la mayor recompensa para Fusagasugá, pues, defender el agua, la biodiversidad y en general el medio ambiente, es un tema central de toda la ciudadanía, desde el más pobre hasta el más rico se verían afectados por la intervención minera en sus territorios. Hecho que motivó la masiva concurrencia de los habitantes urbanos y del sector rural a las urnas para rechazar con 39.175 votos contundentes por el No contra 202 por el Sí, ante la amenaza del fracking y la megaminería en las estribaciones del páramo de Sumapaz.

De otra parte, es un llamado de las comunidades para que el Gobierno nacional estimule el campo, el Estado no puede seguir viendo la explotación minera y petrolera, como la opción para impulsar la economía del país. Existen verdaderas alternativas, donde pequeños y medianos productores pueden hacer que el sector agropecuario vuelva a ocupar los primeros renglones de la economía colombiana.

Es la fecha que ni el gobernador de Cundinamarca, la Asamblea Departamental o la Corporación Autónoma Regional CAR, se han pronunciado sobre este tema, mostrando una apatía asombrosa frente a los impactos sociales y ambientales que puedan devenir de las prácticas como el fracking o las sísmicas en dicha exploración. Seguramente dirán que desde su posición no pueden intervenir en la elección, pero el silencio absoluto los convierte en cómplices de una política sumisa al interés del gran capital.

Las consultas hasta hoy han desempeñado un papel fundamental como ejercicio democrático y como única herramienta del pueblo para definir cómo quieren vivir en sus territorios, normalmente el derecho colectivo prima sobre el interés individual y las altas cortes no pueden hacer oídos sordos ante ello.

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