Ciénaga de Mallorquín: Contaminación en organismos y en la salud humana

206
Panorama de la Ciénaga de Mallorquín.

Miguel C. Espinosa Ardila

La Ciénaga de Mallorquín es una laguna costera estuarina del departamento del Atlántico, nutrida por el Río Magdalena, el Arroyo León y el Mar Caribe. Su importancia radica en servir de protección natural de la erosión marina, la conservación y reproducción de organismos, así como ser fuente pesquera de las poblaciones de La Playa y Las Flores por su recurso biótico, entre muchas otras. El interés estratégico de este ecosistema conllevó a su protección en el marco de la Convención Relativa a los Humedales de Importancia Internacional especialmente como Hábitat de Aves Acuáticas o Convención Ramsar, como parte del Sistema Delta Estuarino del Río Magdalena, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a través del Decreto 224 de 1998 del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente.

Sin embargo, la Ciénaga está sometida a la acción humana lesiva, producto de la contaminación bacteriológica, metales pesados, materia orgánica, lixiviados, residuos sólidos, vertimiento de residuos líquidos sin tratamiento domésticos e industriales, relleno, tala indiscriminada de mangles, etc. Especial atención merece la contaminación que proviene del Río Magdalena, que como anotamos en un artículo anterior, recoge toda la polución de Colombia y que termina depositándose en la Ciénaga de Mallorquín, así como el Arroyo León, que sirve de receptor de los vertimientos de la Estación de Depuración de Aguas Residuales (EDAR) El Pueblo, convirtiendo ese arroyo de temporal a permanente. Se busca en este artículo exponer qué impactos está produciendo la contaminación en Mallorquín, centrándose en los metales pesados y la reducción de la estructura comunitaria de invertebrados macrobentónicos (ostras, camarones, caracoles, cangrejos, etc.).

Sin oxígeno

Estudios de Iván León Luna, señalan el grado de piritización en el sedimento de Mallorquín, donde la forma química del Fe (hierro) en ambientes anóxicos (oxígeno disuelto agotado) se transforma en hierro pirita (FeS2). Es un indicador que permite clasificar los ambientes sedimentarios respecto del oxígeno: la mayoría de los puntos de muestreo de la Ciénaga señalan una tendencia anóxica, modificando la estructura comunitaria por déficit de oxígeno disuelto indispensable para su respiración. En efecto, el estudio aporta datos interesantes: i) en el lugar donde se ubica el antiguo botadero de basuras de Barranquilla no se reporta ningún tipo de vida de invertebrados macrobentónicos producto de los lixiviados, con un grado de piritización con tendencia anóxica; ii) en la desembocadura del Arroyo León y frente al corregimiento La Playa (sin la totalidad de alcantarillado) existe una tendencia anóxica de acuerdo al grado de piritización, reportándose sólo tres especies pero con un número elevado de individuos, lo cual quiere decir que sólo sobreviven aquellas capaces de tolerar esa contaminación; y, iii) en el centro de la Ciénaga y donde se conecta el Río Magdalena se presentó el mayor número de especies.

Lo que señala el estudio es que la contaminación está impactando a los organismos invertebrados asociados al sedimento, reduciendo en ciertos lugares a las especies por incapacidad de tolerar esos ambientes. Ahora, este estudio del 2005 será contrastado con los monitoreos de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico CRA (autoridad ambiental): en el 2015, los invertebrados disminuyen en dos puntos: la desembocadura del Arroyo León y en el antiguo botadero de basuras, mientras que para el 2017 la CRA señala: “Los índices ecológicos, solo se evaluaron en los puntos 1 [antiguo botadero de basuras] y 4 [centro de la Ciénaga], debido a que en los puntos 2 [Río Magdalena] y 3 [Arroyo León] no se registró la presencia organismos bentónicos”. Cabe resaltar que las únicas especies encontradas en el punto 1 fueron Clitellata (lombrices de tierra) y Polychaeta (gusanos marinos), y sólo en el centro de la Ciénaga hubo Bivalvia (bivalvos): la Mytella charruana (mejillón).

Metales en la cadena alimenticia

Lo que nos señala este es que la contaminación en la Ciénaga de Mallorquín está modificando las estructuras comunitarias de los organismos invertebrados asociados al sedimento que son incapaces de soportar esos niveles, reduciendo así los recursos bióticos.

Por otro lado, es pertinente señalar algunos estudios que han reportado contaminación con metales pesados en especies de interés comercial, lo que es importante al momento de evaluar la salud pública por su bioacumulación en los seres humanos cuando los consumen.

Los metales pesados cobre (Cu), cadmio (Cd), zinc (Zn), plomo (Pb), manganeso (Mn), níquel (Ni), mercurio (Hg, en su forma más tóxica de metilmercurio), hierro (Fe) y cromo (Cr, en su forma trivalente y hexavalente, ésta última más tóxica) se reportaron en las siguientes especies: Mugil incilis (liza), Corbula caribaea (Chipichipi), Mugil curema (lisa blanca), Arius bonillai (chivo cabezón), Centropomus undecimalis (róbalo), Letjanus griseus (pargo mulato) y Eugerres plumieri (mojarra rayada). Estos metales no sólo están impactando en la reducción de la estructura comunitaria sino que además están bioacumulándose en esos organismos, los cuales tienen interés comercial por el consumo de los seres humanos.

Limitar el consumo

La conclusión de Fuentes Gándara en su estudio del 2016 es determinante: “nuestro estudio muestra que el extremadamente alto consumo diario [de pescados] resulta en un elevado riesgo por Hg [mercurio] y Pb [plomo], y señala una urgente necesidad de limitar el consumo de grandes cantidades de pescado”. Esta demoledora conclusión descarna el impacto de la contaminación de la Ciénaga de Mallorquín: la bioacumulación y biomagnificación de metales pesados tiene un impacto en sus consumidores humanos, colocando en riesgo la salud pública por intoxicación ambiental. Mientras no exista un adecuado tratamiento de las aguas residuales industriales y domésticas, y se siga contaminando el recurso hídrico colombiano, la salud de los barranquilleros está en un elevado riesgo. Este panorama no dista de otros lugares en Colombia que se nutren del Río Magdalena, como se expondrá en otro artículo. Es necesario no sólo un mayor número de investigadores críticos que develen estas realidades, sino además aunar esfuerzos para detener la contaminación del agua, defendiendo el territorio, la naturaleza y la vida misma.

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