Centro Democrático contra los derechos ciudadanos

299
Álvaro Uribe y Paloma Valencia en rueda de prensa. Foto twitter.

Las libertades individuales y los derechos ciudadanos, deben ser recortados a juicio de esta colectividad. Aquí las propuestas de la última semana

Redacción política

Convertir las altas Cortes en tribunales judiciales supeditados a una gran Corte de magistrados elegidos por el presidente Duque, y cambiar las reglas de juzgamiento de los congresistas para que sean sus pares en cada cámara legislativa los que avalen su captura o la iniciación de un proceso en contra de uno de ellos, y reformar la tutela, son las tres principales propuestas que contiene la reforma a la justicia presentada por el Gobierno nacional y la bancada mayoritaria liderada por la senadora Paloma Valencia.

Impunidad parlamentaria

La propuesta ha causado revuelo pues en su articulado señala explícitamente que los congresistas tendrán un fuero parlamentario, o lo que en otros tiempos se denominaba, inmunidad parlamentaria, con el objetivo de que la justicia no los pueda investigar ni juzgar.

Según la iniciativa legislativa pre­sen­tada en la Comisión Primera Constitucional en el Senado, ningún miembro del Congreso podrá ser aprehendido ni llamado a juicio sin permiso de la Cámara a que pertenezca, durante el período constitucional. “En caso de flagrante delito deberán ser aprehendidos y puestos inmediatamente a disposición de la misma corporación”, indica el articulado. Lo que la opinión pública interpretó como un artículo con nombre propio: Álvaro Uribe Vélez.

Nombramiento del Fiscal

Según la parlamentaria uribista, el nombramiento del Fiscal General de la Nación no se corresponde con una democracia presidencial como la nuestra. Una propuesta que revela el doble discurso del uribismo ante las coyunturas políticas y judiciales. Ese partido han sido reiterativo en señalar que la justicia se encuentra politizada ante las decisiones judiciales que afectan a los cuadros más destacados del uribismo después de ser investigados por la Fiscalía o las altas Cortes. Pero su argumento termina cuando proponen que la elección del Fiscal General de la Nación, sea hecho por el presidente Iván Duque: “Dentro del mismo espíritu, la reforma también encarna el deseo nacional por encontrar una justicia despolitizada e imparcial, pronta y confiable para todos los colombianos”, señala la exposición de motivos.

Reformar la JEP

Otra de las perlas de las propuestas reformatorias la formuló el expresidente Uribe y tiene que ver con un intento más de modificar los acuerdos de La Habana, reformando el acto legislativo 01 de 2017. Para esa colectividad se deben juzgar los delitos sexuales en el marco del conflicto en la jurisdicción ordinaria y no en la JEP.

Lo que no señalan los autores de la iniciativa de reforma es que los acuerdos de paz no blindan de impunidad dichas conductas. De hecho, tienen un tratamiento más riguroso en la Jurisdicción Especial de Paz, que en la ordinaria. Las víctimas han señalado que el grado de impunidad para este tipo de actos en la justicia ordinaria es inmenso. Incluso, la Corte Constitucional en reciente revisión legal de los acuerdos, fue clara en señalar que el Congreso de la República no podrá modificar los acuerdos de paz por su propia iniciativa, de manera que la propuesta del Centro Democrático puede quedar empantanada ante la jurisdicción constitucional, excepto que insistan en llevarse por delante la institucionalidad judicial.

Pero no es la única reforma que propone el Centro Democrático para para marchitar los acuerdos de paz. El nuevo objetivo de esa bancada es la modificación de los jueces naturales para los militares involucrados en delitos relacionados con el conflicto. Se trata de crear una nueva sala al tribunal de paz en donde sean juzgados los militares que decidan acogerse a esa jurisdicción.

La propuesta indica que la nueva sala, apéndice del tribunal de paz, sería conducida por el Gobierno nacional, a donde llegarían los magistrados especialmente elegidos por el ejecutivo cuya misión sería juzgar a los militares con reglas asimétricas a las de los excombatientes que se han inscrito en ese tribunal para resolver su situación judicial.

Auxilios parlamentarios

Para completar la reforma, la bancada oficial, pretende que el Congreso de la República vuelva a tener iniciativa presupuestaria. Esto es, que los congresistas definan el 10% del Presupuesto Nacional para los proyectos que ellos mismos determinen.

Con esa propuesta se reviven los auxilios parlamentarios que fueron acabados a mediados de la década de los noventa. La propuesta le entregaría a cada parlamentario la posibilidad de invertir recursos en proyectos de infraestructura para las regiones sin ningún tipo de control, diferente al del propio Congreso que aprobaría en la plenaria las inversiones exclusivas de cada parlamentario.

Ello abriría un boquete gigante pues los entes de control como la Contraloría no podrían ver la ejecución de esas partidas por la reserva congresional que tendrían dichos recursos. Esas partidas, como en pasados tiempos servirían para fortalecer el poder regional de los gamonales políticos, alentaría una especie de corrupción legal y serviría para ampliar la clientela política, sustento de parte de la corrupción que aqueja al país.

Tutela

Aunque la modificación constitucional a la tutela, el mecanismo de protección individual de derechos fundamentales que nació en la Constitución de 1991, no fue tocado en la reforma a la justicia presentada la pasada semana por Paloma Valencia, sí será estudiada por el parlamento por iniciativa gubernamental.

La nueva ministra de Justicia, Gloria María Borrero, radicó en la secretaria del Senado una reforma a la justicia cuya esencia es la modificación del mecanismo constitucional de la tutela en su legitimidad, caducidad y competencia, además que se le adicionan nuevos requisitos de procedimiento que hacen nugatorio el goce de derechos fundamentales.

Lo que sugiere la reforma a la justicia del Gobierno Duque es excluir a cualquier ciudadano del amparo constitucional a sus derechos fundamentales, es decir que el mecanismo de amparo ciudadano solo pueda ejercerlo quien argumente ser afectado en sus derechos. Por ejemplo en adelante se acabarían las agencias oficiosas para presentar tutelas o que estas puedan ser presentadas por cualquier persona.

Impondrían jueces especializados en tutela dejando al país sin la posibilidad de acudir, como señala la Constitución, a cualquier juez para resolver la garantía de acceso a derechos fundamentales. En adelante solo podrían conocer de tutelas los jueces especializados en el asunto, lo que haría más engorrosa y limitada la reclamación de derechos, en contra de lo dispuesto por el constituyente primario de entregarle a la ciudadanía un mecanismo de protección a derechos, expedito y práctico.

La premisa del Centro Democrático y del Gobierno nacional es retroceder en garantías de derechos y libertades para los ciudadanos, si se tiene en cuenta la propuesta de penalizar la dosis mínima, volver a las fumigaciones con glifosato, desnaturalizar los acuerdos de paz, recortar derechos ganados por las mujeres y los sectores Lgtbi. La disputa en el parlamento y en la opinión pública será por no permitir que los avances sociales y las libertades individuales no se vean afectadas por la influencia de la extrema derecha en el parlamento y en el Gobierno.

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