Campesinos se toman la vía al golfo de Urabá

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Movilización en el Cañón de la Llorona. Foto Bibiana Ramírez – APR.

Uniéndose al paro nacional, campesinos e indígenas de Dabeiba salen a las carreteras a expresar su inconformidad con el Gobierno colombiano

Bibiana Ramírez – Agencia Prensa Rural
@bibianarm 

El Urabá antioqueño es una zona muy apetecida por los paramilitares, desde allí intentan controlar gran parte del territorio nacional. Sin embargo es una región que crece exponencialmente, ya que la riqueza que allí se alberga es grande. Y con ello llegan las problemáticas.

Una de ellas y que preocupa a los urabaenses es la creación de tres peajes nuevos. También la siembra de cultivos de uso ilícito que los gobernantes no quieren reconocer. Por eso, en pocos días se hicieron movilizaciones en Apartadó y en Dabeiba para expresar la inconformidad y el abandono al que han estado sometidos desde décadas atrás.

El cañón de la Llorona, en Dabeiba, es un lugar que ha sido hostigado por el conflicto armado. Por allí está la ruta desde Medellín, al golfo del Urabá. En años anteriores esta vía era bloqueada por la guerrilla o los paramilitares. Ahora son los campesinos quienes salen a las carreteras a demostrar al Gobierno que hay necesidades en esta región.

Por la vía se pueden observar los tambos indígenas, abundante agua, ventas de frutas, pues es tierra bastante productiva. La mayoría de casas que hay son de plástico, lona verde o madera.

Las montañas son muy empinadas. Los campesinos hacen garruchas artesanales para transportar sus alimentos, o los niños para ir a las escuelas, pero es peligroso porque hay que cruzar grandes ríos. En este lugar la comunicación es casi nula, en casi ninguna vereda entra la señal de celular. Las mujeres cuentan que han sido sometidas al maltrato y se han limitado al trabajo doméstico.

“A mí me tocó vivir mucha violencia en esta zona. Vivo a cuatro horas caminando por esas montañas. Sufrimos mucha calamidad. Mataron muchas familias, nos ocupaban las casas los paramilitares, el Ejército. Nos tocaron los bombardeos, pasaban aviones, helicópteros, caían balas a nuestras casas, rompían los techos. Salíamos al pueblo y teníamos que hacer lo que dijeran los grupos paramilitares y en el monte lo que decía la guerrilla”, dice un campesino que llega desde las altas montañas a hacerse escuchar por el Gobierno.

Indignación campesina

El lunes 30 de octubre el cañón de la Llorona estuvo agitado porque los campesinos y los indígenas de Dabeiba se tomaron la vía pacíficamente. Desde tempranas horas del domingo se fueron concentrando, algunos desde regiones lejanas, con sus botas empantanadas y un morral al hombro para resistir en la vía. A la par fueron llegando el Ejército y la Policía, pues estaba extendido por todo el pueblo el rumor de que habría paro.

Sin embargo la intención se centró en hacer pedagogía sobre lo que está pasando en el país y especialmente en esa región. Paraban los carros durante cinco minutos para explicar y luego los dejaban pasar. Así estuvieron todo el día. Aunque no estaban preparados para un bloqueo y una respuesta ante la arremetida del Esmad, hicieron que la institucionalidad se preocupara.

En Dabeiba la educación ha sido precaria, hay pobreza y total abandono. Es un municipio priorizado para la implementación de los Acuerdos, allí hay un espacio territorial de capacitación y reincorporación.

Coca en el Urabá

El alcalde de Dabeiba dice que en este municipio no hay coca, pero el 22 de octubre llegaron al parque principal cerca de 500 campesinos e indígenas cultivadores y trabajadores de coca de los municipios de Chigorodó, Mutatá, Apartadó, Peque y Dabeiba para crear los comités cocaleros para la sustitución voluntaria.

Dos días después de esto llegó el Ejército a erradicar en la vereda Quiparadó, tres horas a pie desde el municipio. Estos campesinos, ya conscientes de lo que estaba sucediendo y de los acuerdos que crearon en la Coccam municipal, detuvieron la erradicación, pues ya habían manifestado la voluntad para sustituir.

Aunque no hay un censo de la cantidad de coca que hay en Dabeiba, es evidente que muchos campesinos han optado por la siembra de este cultivo, pues aseguran que es difícil vender las cosechas agrícolas. “Todo un día de camino sacando en mula la cosecha por caminos pantanosos, a veces las mulas se quedan pegadas en el lodo, para que en el pueblo nos compren al precio que les dé la gana”.

Peajes

En Apartadó se congregaron comerciantes, transportadores, campesinos e indígenas el sábado 28 de octubre para protestar contra los peajes que ha impuesto la Gobernación de Antioquia. Desde Medellín a Necoclí hay cuatro peajes y están en la construcción de otros tres dentro de la zona bananera. Hay un verdadero problema de vías, pero la gente cree que esa no es la solución, dicen: “para qué peajes sin agua potable, sin educación, sin salud”.

“Le estamos diciendo sí a los peajes pero no donde están ubicados. Los peajes en esta área metropolitana que es Urabá están perjudicando a una población que tiene que pagar peaje para ir a trabajar o almorzar. Es una población que ha estado excluida de Antioquia, decimos que bienvenido el progreso pero un progreso planificado y que sea justo, no que atropelle o sea excluyente”, dice John Jaime Urrea de la iniciativa participativa y ciudadana por la reubicación de los peajes.

Hasta para los campesinos sería un impedimento más para sacar sus productos. Después de pasar todas las barreras en el campo, luego tendrán que pagar peaje. “Así hasta vamos a quedar debiendo, entonces ¿estamos trabajando para quién? Este es un Estado parásito, no da sino que quita”, dice un campesino que no está de acuerdo con los peajes.

Un solo día estuvieron los labriegos en la carretera demostrando que tienen la necesidad de hacer valer sus derechos. Saben que deben prepararse para nuevos eventos, pues el Gobierno da indicios de incumplir, cada vez más, lo acordado en La Habana.

Paro nacional sin acuerdos

El lunes 30 de octubre se reunieron, por segunda vez, los voceros de la MIA con el Gobierno nacional para reinstalar la Mesa de interlocución. Sin embargo esta no fue posible, por lo que el paro continúa en las regiones del país. En un comunicado, la MIA dice: “Consideramos que no hay voluntad del Gobierno cuando las respuestas son la represión en los territorios y la dilación de los debates en los diferentes escenarios técnicos… Declaramos que las vidas que se pongan en riesgo en el transcurso de la movilización son responsabilidad del Estado… Continuaremos en movilización hasta que se garantice la implementación de los puntos solicitados en nuestro pliego nacional”.

La represión continúa. Aumentan los heridos en el Catatumbo, Putumayo y Cauca. Periodistas que han estado cubriendo la protesta también han sido golpeados y les han dañado sus herramientas de trabajo.

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