Camino hacia la muerte

135
Mina de carbón a cielo abierto en el departamento del Cesar.

Bianca Lizzeth Viatela Carrascal

El cuidado del medio ambiente y del planeta, actualmente, se declara como vocación para la muerte; ya que el terrorismo involucrado con la economía verde, atenta cada día más contra la lucha hacia la búsqueda por los respetos a la madre tierra y a los derechos humanos.

Amenazas de muerte, desaparición forzada, ataques a la familia, vigilancia ilegal, desplazamiento, garantías escasas o casi nulas de protección, contaminación, acoso judicial, personal, familiar, corrupción, desamparo, abuso, censura, impunidad investigativa, disputas por territorio, estigmatización social, malestar psicosocial, violación al derecho de consulta, atropello al derecho de la protesta, uso de la fuerza mal utilizada como represión en manifestaciones pacíficas; son conceptos con los que se enfrenta toda persona que esté dispuesta a defender un río, una montaña, un espacio natural, una vida sana, una tierra en beneficio de todos.

¿Qué hay detrás de todo esto y quiénes son los “grandes” enemigos “ocultos”? ¿Se detendrá la causa de la lucha ambiental ante el flagelo, o el miedo callará a quienes intentan silenciar la voz? Hechos sucedidos en distintos lugares, países de Suramérica, Centroamérica, África, Asia, etc., reportan sus experiencias, y revelan una lista de países mayormente afectados por muertes de defensores ambientales; en la que Brasil encabeza con la cifra más alta de activistas asesinados, siendo estos 49, en segundo lugar está Colombia con 37; Filipinas con 28; India 16; Honduras 14; Nicaragua 11, República Democrática del Congo y Bangladesh 10 cada uno; 6 en Guatemala; Irán y México con 3 en cada país; Myanmar, Perú y Sudáfrica coinciden con 2; y Camerún, China, Irlanda, Malasia, Pakistán, Tanzania, Tailandia, Uganda, Vietnam y Zimbabue que suman 1 defensor ambiental muerto por cada país. Cifras aproximadas y obtenidas por el informe Global Witness 2017, considerando 120 países, donde 200 defensores fueron asesinados en el 2016, entre 24 países del mundo. El 60% de las muertes se concentran en América Latina, el 40% de las víctimas pertenecen a poblaciones indígenas, además de las personas campesinas en riesgo.

Se identificó objetivamente que las amenazas ejecutadas en el caso de Colombia y Filipinas, provienen de los grupos armados ilegales como los paramilitares, actualmente vinculados a 35 casos; también la Policía está relacionada con 33 homicidios; terratenientes relacionados con 26 ataques y la seguridad privada a 14 casos. Los cazadores furtivos, generalmente, en el continente africano están inmiscuidos en 13 casos; los militares, colonos, madereros, sicarios y representantes empresariales, son otro grupo de actores asociados a los asesinatos de algunos defensores. Claramente militares de alto rango e inversionistas de distintos proyectos extractivos son responsables de estas repudiables injusticias, donde sin consentimiento libre, previo e informado hacen uso y abuso de lo ajeno, presuntamente asalariados por hilos con mayor poder de manipulación capitalista, por lo que irónicamente se ven salvaguardados por gobiernos a lo Poncio Pilato.

Reciente caso sucedido en Colombia

Situación experimentada por el Presidente de la Corporación Indígenas Nasa Cxhab, que maneja recursos económicos, como una especie de Banco Indígena, quien también es líder social, comunitario y ambientalista, don Hermes Evelio Petes Vivas, actual Gobernador del Resguardo Indígena de Belalcázar; un espacio territorial que cuenta con más de 44.000 hectáreas, donde fue elegido como delegado de la Zona Tierradentro en el Cauca, municipio de Páez, compuesto por 25 cabildos indígenas, encargados en el tema de la comisión mixta con las FARC en el proceso de negociación y paz, mediante la participación de una mesa técnica, con propósito de esclarecer la verdad de quiénes y porqué mataron sus dirigentes y gobernadores.

Desde sus distintas funciones, ha contribuido en orden, defensa y cuidado de los espacios naturales sagrados, adjudicados bajo su vigilancia; desempeñándose  con amor entrañable hacia su tierra, su población y entorno, por lo que en el trayecto de sus múltiples tareas, se ha visto de frente con el desmantelamiento incluso de una banda dedicada al hurto de motos dentro de su área, además de tener que exigir a determinadas personas ajenas al territorio, que abandonaran las tierras que estaban siendo abusivamente trabajadas, para la construcción de túneles y barricadas; teniendo que manifestar también su debida oposición a proyectos de extracción minera, con resistencia de carácter ético contra el atropello del medio ambiente por parte de las presiones de multinacionales.

La comunidad les dice no a la minería, no a las hidroeléctricas; rechaza los megaproyectos que quieren imponer, como represas, explotaciones de oro y otros minerales; enfrenta además conflictos relacionados con droga y cultivos ilícitos; razones que generaron  una serie de enemigos con distintos intereses; llegando a perjudicar su bienestar, mediante constantes amenazas hacia su vida por medio de panfletos que expresan el riesgo latente al que se le quiere ver sometido. Desde el año 2016 solicitó medida cautelar, resultando una condición de prevención insuficiente para la protección de su vida y su familia. Situación comprobada desde el 13 de octubre del año en curso, cuando en horas de la madrugada, a las afueras de su residencia, se perpetró un atentado del que salió con vida, gracias a su rápida reacción y la de sus guardas de seguridad. No pudo salir ileso, siendo herido por arma de fuego, razón por la que actualmente está en proceso de recuperación y bajo instancias investigativas que se espera, no queden impunes como tantas otras.

Urge que los defensores sean defendidos

Parte de la solución, implica combatir las causas de las amenazas, permitiendo a las comunidades elegir de forma libre e informada si sus tierras y recursos pueden ser o no, utilizados. Es necesario proteger a los defensores ambientales con leyes y políticas de prácticas específicas, así como también, se requiere de los gobiernos un seguimiento y rendición de cuentas sobre los abusos cometidos contra los defensores, no solo procesando judicialmente a los responsables de ordenar o perpetrar un ataque, también asegurando que los actores que no apoyan, ni protegen a los activistas ambientales, tengan sus merecidas consecuencias a falta de participación en acción, a favor de un beneficio tan relevante. Informe investigado en:

200 defensores del ambiente y la tierra fueron asesinados durante el 2016

https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/environmental-activists/defender-la-tierra/

Fuente de entrevista directa con el gobernador indígena nasa, Hermes Evelio Petes Vivas, el 25 de octubre de 2017.

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