“Hay que buscar un programa de unidad”: Caycedo

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Foto internet.

Análisis electoral del Secretario General del Partido Comunista, Jaime Caycedo. Los resultados de las elecciones y el reacomodo de las fuerzas políticas en el Congreso de la República fueron analizados

Hernán Camacho
@camachohernan 

Hay una falsa polarización provocada por los medios de comunicación que no permite abrir un debate franco frente a las ideas y propuestas de los candidatos de derecha que enfrentarán a Gustavo Petro. Así lo analiza Jaime Caycedo, después de las justas electorales del pasado 11 de marzo. VOZ lo entrevistó un día después de conocer los datos de votos y la conformación del nuevo mapa político nacional

–¿Cómo queda el mapa político con las fuerzas que alcanzaron curul? ¿Qué vale la pena analizar de los resultados del domingo?

–Hay que destacar la alta votación más de 3 millones de votos y la nueva composición de Senado y Cámara. La derecha es dominante, sobre todo en Cámara. Pero sería un error negar los cambios que se han puesto de manifiesto. Hay fenómenos nuevos en la actitud de sectores populares que se están aproximando a la política. El proceso unitario de las listas Decentes alcanzó 4 cargos de Senado y 2 de Cámara, con más de medio millón de votos (523.286), en menos de 60 días de campaña. La consulta Por la Inclusión Social para la Paz logró 3 millones 365 mil votos en cuatro semanas. La candidatura presidencial de Gustavo Petro despega con mucha fuerza, sin los recursos que despliegan los candidatos del capital. Su propuesta de buscar un acuerdo de convergencia para defender los Acuerdos de paz tiene un profundo sentido democrático.

Veamos otros datos: Alianza Verde, el Polo y la Lista Decentes al senado suman más de 2 millones y medio de votos y alcanzan tantos senadores (19) como el Centro Democrático de Uribe. La imagen difundida por los medios en el exterior de un aplastante triunfo derechista no es enteramente correcta, porque invisibiliza los avances en curso. Es cierto, sin embargo, que las maquinarias clientelistas y paramilitares conservan fuerte arraigo electoral. Como efecto del Acuerdo de paz, FARC ha hecho ingreso a la actividad política y aporta 5 senadores y 5 representantes, comprometidos con la paz y las reivindicaciones populares. Es necesario reconocer: estas novedades electorales serían imposibles sin el aliento del acuerdo de paz, de su implementación compleja y sin el nuevo espíritu que reclama cambios democráticos para consolidar la solución política.

Sin embargo, no corresponde a la verdad la afirmación de Santos según la cual estamos ante unas elecciones pacíficas. Por lo contrario, es una campaña atravesada por una muy grave oleada de crímenes de dirigentes y activistas sociales. Las agresiones, asonadas estigmatizaciones y prohibiciones pretenden erigirse como expresiones de una “sanción social” a excombatientes y dirigentes de izquierda, como parte de la publicidad de la ultraderecha. No hay garantías reales, como se manifestó en Medellin, Cúcuta, Yumbo y Florencia, pero también en los crímenes que se han incrementado en los tres últimos meses. De hecho, podría afirmarse que esta es una campaña electoral en medio de una verdadera “emergencia humanitaria” que el Gobierno se esfuerza por ocultar.

–¿El significado de que la Unión Patriótica y el Partido Comunista vuelvan al parlamento?

–Es lo que representa una fuerza crítica, impulsora de la paz, de la solución política y de las reivindicaciones populares, que son las tareas de la hora. Además, una fuerza ética en su compromiso con la defensa del Acuerdo de paz final. Decentes es una bancada pluralista y avanzada, por eso Aída no estará sola. Aún más, tanto en el Polo como en Verdes y un sector liberal, hay personas amigas. FARC es una bancada que se inscribe en la lógica de un bloque popular. Veremos seguramente otro transcurrir de lo que podríamos nombrar como un campo parlamentario democrático que hasta ahora no había existido, en una forma tan plural en Colombia.

–¿Cuál cree que sea el papel que vaya a jugar la UP en el periodo legislativo?

–El papel que va a desempeñar Aída es fundamental. Representa la dinámica unitaria, la denuncia oportuna, la iniciativa convergente en razón del control político y en nexo permanente con la movilización y la organización popular. Aída es una extraordinaria vocera de la lucha popular, un ejemplo de la rebeldía social y política democrática, con propuestas renovadoras, tambien en una perspectiva de Asamblea Nacional Constituyente.

–¿Cómo queda el espectro de la derecha? ¿Ve afinidades en entre el Centro Democrático, Cambio Radical y Conservadores por hacer trizas el acuerdo y la evitar a toda costa la implementación de la paz en los territorios?

–La derecha corre en defensa de su “orden” contrainsurgente, de sus privilegios y de su política de clase. CD, CR y un sector conservador exhiben esas afinidades y se identifican en temas que provienen de un pensamiento paramilitar. Es preocupante la mayor presencia de fuerzas de la derecha territorial en la Cámara, que reflejan la política de clase y del Banco Mundial. Es la defensa de la acumulación de tierras y de las Zidres, de la minería transnacional y de los megaproyectos, el rechazo a las consultas territoriales, el apoyo acrítico al fracking. La lucha por hacer legal el Acuerdo de Paz para la creación de las 16 Circunscripciones territoriales de paz es ahora un desafío fundamental.

–Y hablando de unidades ¿ve viable una convergencia de fuerzas democráticas para la elección del 27 de mayo?

–Sería lo más adecuado. Los candidatos Petro, ganador de la consulta Inclusión social para la Paz, Fajardo, De la Calle y Piedad Córdoba deberían favorecer un acuerdo de programa y de gobierno para definir los alcances y límites de una convergencia ganadora. Es el momento de hacerlo y Petro ha reafirmado su llamado. La derecha puede haber sacado una fuerte votación, pero las consultas dirimieron unos entendimientos entre partes, no el resultado real de una elección presidencial.

Es cierto que las maquinarias burocrático-paramilitares de Uribe y José Alfredo Ramos se han puesto en movimiento para respaldar el discurso, en apariencia moderado, de Duque. El aparato correspondiente de Vargas Lleras cuenta con el respaldo innegable de Santos para empujar el carro de su propuesta regresiva. El gran capital busca desesperadamente prolongar la vida del régimen.

Simultáneamente, una creciente inconformidad se está expresando en el país. Más que una candidatura “de la izquierda” el ascenso de Petro refleja, recoge y canaliza ese fenómeno social. El pánico que difunde la derecha es la típica maniobra anticomunista que implica una estigmatización radicalizada contra toda alternativa de cambio. La falsa polarización es solo la acomodada interpretación que hacen los medios, cómplices de ese juego perverso que consiste en estimular la “defensa alarmada del sistema” mediante la guerra verbal y el matoneo, para tratar de aislar a la izquierda e impedir la convergencia de las fuerzas avanzadas. Confiamos en que la batalla de ideas, que está en pleno curso, contribuya a construir confianza y seguridad entre los factores que se identifican en la necesidad de dar un paso más hacia la consolidación de la paz, la apertura democrática y la justicia social.

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