Los bolcheviques y su salto al poder

94

A cien años del estallido de la Revolución rusa los grandes emporios de la comunicación se han esforzado por deslegitimar este suceso

Alejandro Cifuentes y Beatriz Guerrero

Una de las mentiras que han buscado posicionar es que la Revolución de Octubre no fue más que un golpe de estado protagonizado por una facción política. Nada más alejado de la realidad. Entre febrero y octubre de 1917 el pueblo del Imperio ruso derrocó al viejo régimen zarista –una monarquía absoluta que mantenía los privilegios de una nobleza terrateniente–, frenó el avance de una burguesía sometida por Inglaterra y Francia, y dio pie a la conformación de un estado controlado por obreros y campesinos que iniciaría la modernización del país sobre la base de propiedad estatal y cooperativa. En este proceso fue clave el papel jugado por el Sóviet, un órgano de democracia directa popular.

La Revolución de Octubre fue, además, una revolución contra la guerra. En 1914, Europa se había sumido en una guerra causada por la competencia entre las potencias capitalistas por las colonias en Asia, África y Oceanía. Francia e Inglaterra se habían aliado con Rusia con el fin de enfrentarse a Alemania, Austria-Hungría y el Imperio Otomano. Alemania quería ampliar sus posesiones coloniales en África y el Pacífico.

Rusia buscaba aprovechar su alianza con las potencias occidentales para anexionarse parte de la península de Anatolia, en la actual Turquía. Pero este país no estaba preparado para afrontar el tipo de confrontación que fue la Primera Guerra Mundial, donde la industria fue vital.

El atraso durante el zarismo

Para principios del siglo XX se calcula que la población rusa alcanzaba 126 millones de habitantes, de la cual 80% era campesina. La servidumbre existió legalmente hasta 1861, y aunque los campesinos fueron liberados de las obligaciones feudales, les fueron vendidas tierras de muy mala calidad a precios exorbitantes. Así, las deudas y la baja productividad mantuvieron en la pobreza a la mayoría del campesinado, haciendo inviable la modernización del agro ruso. La industria comenzó a desarrollarse durante la década de 1890. Se encontraba localizada en ciudades como Moscú y Petrogrado –la capital–, y en Bakú, donde se extraía petróleo. Además, esta industria estaba controlada por inversiones inglesas y francesas.

Cuando el zar Nicolás II decidió intervenir en la Primera Guerra, la industria rusa no podía apertrechar suficientemente al ejército, y el campo, improductivo, no podría satisfacer la demanda de alimentos de las ciudades y del frente. Esta situación se empeoró por el hecho de que el ejército se compuso masivamente de campesinos sacados de sus parcelas.

Las acciones bélicas de los rusos fueron un constante fracaso, y para principios de 1917 la vida de los trabajadores del campo y la ciudad empeoraba. El 27 de febrero de ese año,1 las mujeres de Petrogrado se levantaron exigiendo pan y paz. El levantamiento se ganó el favor del ejército y la policía, y abrió el camino a un movimiento revolucionario que llevó a la abdicación del zar.

El proceso revolucionario

Tras la abdicación se formó un gobierno provisional, apoyado por las potencias occidentales y controlado por la burguesía rusa. Ese gobierno dilató la reforma agraria y declaró que Rusia se mantendría en la guerra. Pero al mismo tiempo aparecieron soviets por todo el país que le sirvieron al pueblo para autogobernarse. En la capital se formó el Sóviet de Diputados Obreros y Soldados, que gobernaba con democracia directa y alternamente al gobierno provisional. Se dio entonces lo que Lenin denominó el poder dual.

Esta primera etapa no había logrado las reivindicaciones del pueblo ruso: tierra, pan y paz. Era cuestión de tiempo para que los conflictos latentes estallaran, y precisamente la fracasada campaña militar del verano de 1917 ordenada por el gobierno provisional encauzó los eventos a favor de una revolución más radical.

El Partido Obrero Socialdemócrata de Rusia, órgano que agrupaba a buena parte de los marxistas de ese país, se encontraba dividido desde 1903 en dos fracciones, los Mencheviques y los Bolcheviques. Los primeros apoyaban al gobierno provisional porque creían que Rusia necesitaba primero un régimen burgués que sacara al país del atraso económico, creando así las condiciones para una futura revolución proletaria. Por su parte, los Bolcheviques plantearon que no había que esperar ningún régimen burgués para hacer la revolución.

Todo el poder para los sóviets

Bajo esta premisa, e interpretando el clamor del pueblo por la tierra y la paz, los Bolcheviques fueron ganando terreno al interior del Sóviet de Petrogrado. Después del fracaso militar de Kerenski, presidente del gobierno provisional, hubo un intento de golpe de estado contra la revolución liderado por el general zarista Kornílov. Los Bolcheviques llamaron a los obreros a la defensa de la ciudad.

El prestigio del Soviet iba en aumento, así como el de los Bolcheviques, mientras que el gobierno provisional perdía cada vez más popularidad. Lenin creía que el Sóviet era la base para la construcción de un poder popular, y planteó la consigna de todo el poder para los sóviets. Dadas estas circunstancias, a mediados de octubre de 1917, la dirigencia bolchevique decidió derrocar al gobierno provisional y llevar la revolución un paso más allá llevando al poder a los obreros, los campesinos, los soldados y los marineros organizados en sóviets.

El proyecto se consumó el 25 de octubre, cuando en un alzamiento protagonizado por los obreros de Petrogrado, los soldados y los marinos bolcheviques, depusieron por las armas al gobierno provisional en una jornada prácticamente incruenta.

La revolución solo se consolidaría tras la victoria del poder soviético en una guerra civil de 3 años, organizada por ejércitos reaccionarios apoyados por las potencias capitalistas, Inglaterra, Francia y Estados Unidos.

1.  Antes de la Revolución de Octubre Rusia usaba el calendario juliano, por lo que estaban atrasados 13 días frente a la fecha occidental.

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