Avianca pasa cuenta de cobro a sus pilotos

133

Con la ratificación de ilegalidad del paro por parte Corte Suprema de Justicia, la empresa tuvo pista libre e inició procesos disciplinarios contra sus aviadores

Juan Carlos Hurtado Fonseca
@Aurelianolatino 

Luego de que el pasado 13 de febrero, la Corte Suprema de Justicia ratificara el fallo que declaró ilegal la huelga de pilotos de Avianca, realizada durante 51 días en el año 2017, la compañía tuvo vía libre para citar a los pilotos a interrogatorios e iniciarles procesos disciplinarios.

En consecuencia, el presidente ejecutivo de la aerolínea, Hernán Rincón, explicó a través de un comunicado: “Estos procesos disciplinarios tienen como objetivo aclarar el nivel de participación y responsabilidad individual, así como las presuntas faltas cometidas por los pilotos durante este tiempo”.

(…) “Al final del proceso, y luego de escuchar la versión de los pilotos que fueron parte del cese ilegal y de agotar las instancias convencionales, la compañía resolverá su situación, apreciando y valorando en cada caso su participación en el mismo, lo que nos permitirá identificar si procede una sanción disciplinaria o la terminación del contrato de trabajo”.

Los juicios iniciaron el 26 de febrero con la citación a descargos de 26 aviadores que fueron escuchados simultáneamente, 13 en la mañana y 13 en horas de la tarde. La aerolínea tenía programados 240 procesos para ejecutarlos desde ese día hasta el 6 de marzo.

Por su parte, la Asociación Colombiana de Aviadores Civiles, Acdac, dijo que la premura con la que la empresa desarrollaba el proceso tenía entre otros objetivos, intimidar a sus socios por la vía de la violación a su derecho a la defensa y al debido proceso.

En ese sentido, los pilotos denunciaron que a varios de ellos no les permitieron el ingreso a la reunión con abogado o algún representante de la Acdac, y que no contaban con garantías, puesto que la misma administración que desconocía sus derechos, y violaba las leyes y las normas, obraba como juez. El presidente de Acdad, Jaime Hernández, fue procesado y despedido el mismo día junto con 21 aviadores más.

“Los cargos formulados a los pilotos corresponden a su participación activa en el cese de actividades y a la no presentación a las programaciones asignadas durante el cese. Es de anotar que el mismo Reglamento Interno de Trabajo de la aerolínea establece que en tales casos los trabajadores no están obligados a acudir al lugar de trabajo”, informó Acdac.

El Estado con los empresarios

El sindicato también manifestó que al programar, citar y adelantar los procesos disciplinarios, Avianca estaría incurriendo en Fraude a Resolución Judicial toda vez que desconoce lo establecido en el Laudo Arbitral que profirió el Tribunal de Arbitramento, el 7 de diciembre de 2017: “La empresa… se compromete a no ejercer directa o indirectamente ninguna clase de represalias contra el personal de Acdac y quienes sin estar sindicalizados hayan adherido al pliego de peticiones. En consecuencia, no habrá despidos, suspensiones, multas, discriminación para asignación de vuelos, llamados al retiro o jubilaciones…”.

La Asociación de pilotos también manifestó que si bien es cierto que adelantar procesos disciplinarios es potestad de la empresa, en este caso no puede desbordar esa facultad violando derechos fundamentales y mucho menos burlándose del laudo arbitral vigente.

Por lo anterior, y antes de la diligencia que terminó con su despido, se pronunció el capitán Jaime Hernández: “Las decisiones judiciales son obligatorias. Nosotros somos y hemos sido respetuosos de las decisiones y en los casos en los que ha correspondido hemos apelado o procedido con los recursos de ley que aplican a los trabajadores colombianos, pero jamás hemos faltado a las normas y a las leyes. Como pilotos, como trabajadores y como colombianos, estamos avanzando en un proceso administrativo y jurídico en el que hemos encontrado todos los obstáculos posibles puestos por parte de la administración de Avianca, y peor aún, por el Estado, a través del Ministerio del Trabajo y de la Corte Suprema de Justicia. No obstante, nuestra responsabilidad con la seguridad aérea y con el país laboral, es seguir adelante para que los derechos de los trabajadores sean respetados, para que cesen las prácticas ilegales e inconstitucionales, como la imposición de pactos colectivos, y para que las empresas cumplan a cabalidad con la ley y las normas o, en caso contrario, sean sancionadas por las autoridades competentes”.

Es de recordar que la Corte Suprema de Justicia falló contra la legalidad de la huelga el pasado mes de diciembre, argumentando que en el proceso de votación de los pilotos no se convocó a la totalidad de trabajadores de la empresa, sino solo a los sindicalizados, y que tampoco habían estado más de la mitad de los afiliados. Además, dijo que el transporte público es un servicio público esencial.

Lo que dice la OIT

La primera condición era de imposible cumplimiento puesto que para votar de manera presencial debían reunirse los aviadores y cesar actividades, por lo que acudieron a delegar el voto como lo permiten los estatutos de la organización sindical.

En cuanto el segundo argumento, la magistrada de la Corte, Clara Cecilia Dueñas hizo salvamento de voto explicando que el transporte aéreo no es un servicio público esencial, porque este no es vital para una comunidad y su interrupción no pone en peligro la vida, la salud y la seguridad de las personas: “La Corte cae en el equívoco de no establecer una conexión directa entre el transporte aéreo y la garantía de la vida, la salud y la seguridad de las personas, sino que lo hace a través de otros derechos presuntamente transgredidos como el de la movilidad y libre circulación. Al hacerlo de esta forma el fallo infringe la regla hermenéutica de interpretación de los derechos fundamentales, en virtud de la cual su protección debe garantizarse al máximo y sus restricciones interpretarse restrictivamente”.

Asimismo, el Comité de Libertad Sindical, órgano de control de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, OIT, que interpreta y aplica las normas internacionales sobre libertad sindical, dice:  “El principio sobre prohibición de huelgas en los ‘servicios esenciales’ podría quedar desvirtuado si se tratara de declarar ilegal una huelga en una o varias empresas que no prestaran un ‘servicio esencial’ en el sentido estricto del término, es decir, los servicios cuya interrupción podría poner en peligro la vida, la seguridad o la salud de la persona en toda o parte de la población”.

Por ahora, los 240 procesos contra los pilotos de Avianca continuarán, mientras se esperan pronunciamientos de instancias internacionales a las que acudieron los aviadores, y mientras el movimiento sindical ve con preocupación cómo cada vez se cierra más el cerco de los grandes empresarios y el Estado en contra de sus mínimos derechos.

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